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Volume 9, Issue 8

A Study of the Construction of Indicators for “IT-APP” Principals Technology Leadership for Industrial and Vocational High School in Taiwan
Original Research
Objective of principals technology leadership contents, there are 32 topics covering 5 facet being prepared. Following the fuzzy Delphi method, 17 experts were invited to have Delphi rounds questionnaire. The lfacets and breakdowns comprise 26 topics covering 5 facets applied for the confirmation of Principals Technology Leadership indicators “IT-APP” for Industrial and Vocational High School in Taiwan. Based on the determined indicator system, further with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to determine the priority weigh for each indicator.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 555-558. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-14
Pub. Date: August 29, 2021
Assess-Practice-Present-Reflect (APPR) Mathematics Module Design: Teachers’ Evaluation
Original Research
This study aimed to determine how mathematics experts and teachers assessed the designed APPR (Assess-Practice-Present-Reflect) module based on its Content, Language, and Layout. This was conducted in three divisions in the province of Bukidnon comprising 33 Grade 10 mathematics teachers and experts who are teaching for at least 3 years on the said grade level. The Department of Education LRM rubric was utilized as the primary research instrument. A mixed-method design was employed. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used for the data processing. Analysis of the data revealed that the designed module passed DepEd set of criteria for learning resource materials. Mathematics experts and teacher participants found the designed modules aligned with all the required most essential learning competencies, it contains an essential instructional design that can contribute to achieving the learning objectives, the coherence and clarity of presentations were observed, and has a good physical attributes. Moreover, the interview conducted converged with the result from the instrument. The participants agreed that the APPR module can strongly motivate the learners to finish the module, it promotes grit, encourages independent learning, can cater to the diverse type of learners, and its level of complexity suites to the level of the students. Hence, APPR module is recommended to be used in long-distance learning. Further, a study of this design greatly encouraged especially on how it affects the performance of the learners.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 549-554. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-13
Pub. Date: August 26, 2021
Willingness to Communicate and Motivation of English Language Learners
Original Research
The concept of motivation and willingness to communicate is by many researchers considered to be essential in learning a foreign language. The purpose of the study was to investigate the concept of willingness to communicate and motivation of English language learners in the context of Slovak university students aged 18-22 learning English as a foreign language. The theoretical framework is based on the theories by Dörney [4], Gardner [1,5,6], McGroskey [7], Arnold [2], and Horwitz [18]. The manuscript is divided into two main parts, the theoretical and the empirical. The first part of the research study discusses the concepts of integrative motivation and foreign language willingness to communicate. The second presents the results of the research. The results indicated the degree of factor of foreign language and the factor of willingness to communicate (FL-WTC) of the respondents being moderately high, as the students achieved 67.57% on the scale of WTC-FL. The current research study aimed to clarify the interrelatedness of the selected affective factors and their correlation to foreign language willingness to communicate. The findings supported the motivational construct outlined in the Socio-educational model of second language acquisition of Gardner [1] suggesting that students’ motivation, namely desire, effort and attitude towards learning a language is supported by the two attitudinal components: integrativeness and attitude towards the learning situation. Although the strongest correlation occurred between the component of integrativeness and motivation the attitude towards the learning situation also significantly contributed to integrative motivation. Even though attention was paid to the importance of integrative motivation of English language learners, it also stands in a close relationship with the concept of foreign language WTC.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 543-548. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-12
Pub. Date: August 25, 2021
By Hook or by Crook: Married Students’ Outlook in Coping Academic Stress
Original Research
This study aimed to explore the views of married students in coping academic stress. The participants of the research consisted of 10 married students who are now enrolled in College of Teacher Education-Bachelor of Elementary Education at Quirino State University Main Campus. Employing a phenomenological analysis, it explored the opinions of married students in coping academic stress. Revealed in the study was they concurred in majority that in coping academic stress is someone who possesses time management, income generating, personal attributes and spiritual qualities. Time management was the first strategy that participants described to successfully fill the roles as married student. This held constant across the groups and within each group. The strategy of time management emerged as the “premier” and leading effective strategy for participants. Participants also identified generating extra-income, wise budgeting as various systems of support that helped participants, attitude and a strong religious belief or faith in God. These strategies which top the list in coping academic stress rendered substantial standpoints in developing policies and intervention program in academic performance of students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 537-542. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-11
Pub. Date: August 19, 2021
Successfully Assimilating International Student-Athletes in the College Setting
Original Research
Research has focused on the process of assimilation that international student-athletes experience when they move to a different country to play their sport as well as continue their education. What mechanisms do these athletes develop and implement to facilitate or ease their experience while going through this process? What opportunities do their new environments provide them to assist with this process? In the present study, ten international athletes were interviewed on their personal experience through this process of assimilation to the United States college setting as student-athletes and conclusions have been drawn regarding what helped them overcome this stage of assimilation and what added more stress to this process. This research will focus on the challenges that international student-athletes face when arriving in college in the United States and what they can do to overcome these challenges, as well as what colleges can do to provide support. Key recommendations to improve integration and accommodations into the American collegiate academic and athletic campus culture are presented.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 532-536. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-10
Pub. Date: August 19, 2021
The Pervasiveness of Multi-School Teaching (MST) among Public Secondary Schools in Wakiso District (Uganda): Pedagogical Dilemmas, Handling and Way Forward
Original Research
In response to the ever growing pedagogical ineffectiveness amidst financial distress among teachers in Uganda, the study explored immediate stakeholders’ opinions about the pervasive practice of Multi-School Teaching (MST) among public secondary school teachers in Uganda. The study specifically sought to identify the prevalent forms of pedagogical dilemmas which the MST teachers face; explore how these teachers navigate through the dilemmas; and explore immediate stakeholders’ views on how to forestall the problem. It draws on majorly qualitative and some quantitative data generated from 189 respondents including the teachers, head teachers, directors of studies and students. Data was generated from questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions. Analysis of data involved both thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. The study’s findings discovered a multitude of pedagogical dilemmas faced by MST teachers. However, teachers revealed a number of pragmatic strategies they use to navigate through pedagogical dilemmas. In order to remedy the problems associated with MST, both containing and forestalling opinions were exposed. The opinions offered were only necessary but not sufficient in overcoming the existing pedagogical and financial tribulations among teachers. Thus, collaboration between the Government and immediate education stakeholders was recommended. Besides, an intense level of commitment (in terms of time) and view of teaching as a vocation was also recommended among MST teachers. Lastly, basing on plausible input of MST to teachers’ work-income balance, another study about the influence of MST on teachers’ pedagogical performance is imperative before focusing on the fight against the practice of MST.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 522-531. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-9
Pub. Date: August 18, 2021
Femina Cartoonica: Gender Dimension of Disney Themes as a Pedagogy of Popular Culture
Original Research
Disney project, as an all enhancing pedagogical project, offers interactive methods of learning for preschool children, and multidisciplinary, trans disciplinary, multicultural teaching methods on all levels of schooling, involving advanced levels of Gender studies inside Social studies disciplines, on the upper educational levels.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 518-521. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-8
Pub. Date: August 16, 2021
Stress Management in Tsanawiyah Madrasah Teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Original Research
The main objective of this study was to analyze stress management for Madrasah Tsanawiyah teachers in Bandar Lampung City during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is a type of descriptive research that uses a qualitative approach. The results of the study found that general stress management for teachers at Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Bandar Lampung City was not being optimally performed during the Covid-19 pandemic. especially when developing strategies to avoid and cope with stress. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct Qolbu management training for MTs teachers in Bandar Lampung City to better manage stress during the COVID-19 pandemic.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 513-517. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-7
Pub. Date: August 12, 2021
Augmented Reality and Its Influence on Cognitive Thinking in Learning
Literature Review
Augmented reality (AR) is a medium of transforming K-12 and higher education. The ability to overlay multimedia onto the real world for viewing using web-based environments and technology-enabled devices such as tablets, desktop computers, mackintosh, and phones affords students the ability to access information and resources any place and time they need it. Effective use of technology-based environments and augmented reality reduces cognitive load by scaffolding information and lessons' contents. Augmented reality can readily help in cognitive thinking and enhancing cognitive thinking processes. An increase in patients' cognitive processes using augmented reality in the medical industry where patients use augmented reality tasks to regain cognition, mobility, and ability to perform basic human tasks. The critical literature review will review augmented reality in higher education and its impact on increasing cognitive thinking. Challenges of using augmented reality will be reviewed, including its benefits. There will be a discussion on the gaps in research on augmented reality in higher education and best practices on the use of augmented reality.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 504-512. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-6
Pub. Date: August 10, 2021
College Pre-service Teachers’ Disposition to Mathematics as They Enter the College
Original Research
This is a descriptive study that aims to investigate pre-service teachers’ dispositions toward mathematics (cognitive, affective, and conative). 117 pre-service teachers were purposively sampled for the study. The purpose was to measure their disposition as they join the college community. The findings of this study show that the majority of college freshmen and fresh-women enter college with a negative disposition in all three functions (cognitive, affective, and conative) in mathematics. It was then concluded that a high percentage of these students have a negative disposition towards mathematics. It is recommended that college tutors develop their mathematics disposition by teaching most of the mathematics concepts through activities base.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 498-503. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-5
Pub. Date: August 10, 2021
Simulation App: Improving the Procedural Knowledge of Electronics Technology Students in Electric Circuits
Original Research
The study of electric circuits, which requires some technical skill, appears to be difficult and challenging during a pandemic not just for electronics technology students but also to the instructors handling such course. Having observed this problem in modular learning, the researchers decided to conduct a study which involves the use of mobile simulation application – the EveryCircuit. This study focuses on the effect of using the simulation application on the procedural knowledge of students. An experimental research using the single group pretest-posttest design was utilized in this study. The first activity was the administration of the 40-item pretest, crafted and evaluated by skilled and experienced Electric Circuit instructors/engineers. At the end of the intervention, the posttest was administered, and grades were recorded. Data collected were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA, run through MS Excel - Data Analysis. Results of the study showed that there is a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of the students in favor of the posttest [P-value = 0.02121, < 0.05]. The pretest mean score of 0.25 which has increased as shown in the mean posttest score (1.45) of the students implies that the use of mobile simulation application may have played a significant role in enhancing students’ procedural knowledge. Hence, the researcher recommends the use of any other simulation applications not only in electric circuits but also to other topics or even to the other disciplines, when applicable.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 488-497. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-4
Pub. Date: August 10, 2021
ICT Adoption Readiness and ICT Policy Implementation in Secondary Schools in Mayuge District, Uganda
Original Research
This study explored the levels of and relationship between ICT adoption readiness and ICT policy implementation in Secondary Schools in Mayuge District. The objectives included determining the level of ICT adoption readiness, establishing the level of ICT policy implementation and examining the relationship between ICT adoption readiness and ICT policy implementation. A cross-sectional survey research design employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches was used. A sample of 232 teachers was selected from both private and public secondary schools using simple random sampling technique to participate in the study. Three District Inspectors of Schools (DIS) selected purposively also participated in the study. A questionnaire containing closed ended questions was used to collect quantitative data from the teachers, while an interview guide was used to obtain qualitative responses from the DIS. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics: frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations, while the qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results revealed a moderate overall level of ICT adoption readiness (M = 42.19, SD = 10.10), a moderate overall level of ICT policy implementation (M = 85.11, SD = 9.88), and a significant moderate positive relationship (r = .50, p < .01) between ICT adoption readiness and ICT policy implementation. From the results it was concluded that secondary schools in Mayuge District were in the early stages of domestication of ICT and ICT policy implementation. It was recommended that concerted effort be directed towards improving schools¡¯ ICT adoption readiness in order to improve ICT policy implementation.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 479-487. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-3
Pub. Date: August 09, 2021
Structures and Procedures in Organising College-based Departmentalised Continuous Professional Development Programmes for the Academic Staff of Selected Colleges of Education in the Volta Region of Ghana
Original Research
Houses are built on sound footing and foundation to make them withstand any hardship in times of storms and other external challenges. The case of continuous professional development is no exception. Continuous professional development programmes that have sound footing prosper throughout their implementation. It is based on this universal fact that this research was conducted into discovering the structures and procedures that would favour the conduct of continuous professional development at the colleges of education. The research was qualitative with case study design and pooled participants from 4 selected colleges of education in the Volta Region of Ghana. Interviews were employed in gathering data from 4 Principals and open-ended questionnaire used for seeking information from 4 Vice Principals and 12 College Tutors. In the findings, the major structures needed for effective organisation of departmentalised continuous professional development at the colleges of education were functional departmental heads, professional development committee, academic planning and quality assurance committee, functional department, academic board, and proactive college management. In respect of infrastructure, faculty development fund, departmental conference hall, and internal policy in the domain. The procedures discovered include general sensitization about the programme, need assessment or skill and knowledge audit of staff, identification of competent resource persons, sourcing for funds, organizing professional development sections with effective supervision of components of the programme and conduct of post reviews for further planning. It was recommended that all colleges should have functional departments and departmental heads including departmental continuous professional development coordinators that would see to organisation of sessions of the continuous professional development.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 472-478. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-2
Pub. Date: August 06, 2021
Alignments and Mismatches of Policies on Children with Learning Difficulties/Disabilities to Professional Practice Expectations in Zimbabwe: A Reality Check
Original Research
The problem of gross discrepancies between educational inclusive policy rhetoric for learners with disability and applicability of such intentions in implementation has raised concerns of stakeholders in Zimbabwe. This paper examines whether or not policy prescriptions by the Zimbabwe Ministry of Primary & Secondary Education (MoPSE) for the primary level learners with difficulties are aligned or mis-aligned to actual implementation actions that are a reality on the ground. The paper interrogates these issues with regards to provision of specialised support services, checking if these are fulfilled for learners with disabilities, and argues that if they do not occur, then learning is impeded. The study was located in the interpretive paradigm which used a qualitative approach and a case study design. Participants were drawn from the Metropolitan Provincial Psychological Services team, Parents of children from one selected school and a head of school in the same Province. Results showed that while to a limited extent the specialists identified a few children in the province as falling in the learning difficulties category, the greater number was not identified. Of those identified, specialists hardly serviced them because of lack of resources and this constituted a mismatch of the pronounced claims with what is happening. The paper advances calls for advocacy for policies to be suitably aligned to the expectations purported in ministry claims.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(8), 465-471. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-8-1
Pub. Date: August 04, 2021