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Volume 9, Issue 7

Teachers’ Enterprising Pedagogical Practices (TEPPs): Meaning, Effectiveness and Justification in Uganda’s Education Institutions
Original Research
Due to the challenge of the amplified teachers¡¯ pedagogical ineffectiveness amidst their unprecedented proliferation of financial distress, arising from their meager salaries in Uganda, this paper synthesizes a review of literature related to Teachers¡¯ Enterprising Pedagogical Practices (TEPPs), commonly identified as teachers¡¯ academic-related income generating practices carried out in view of surmounting their financial distress and yet remain pedagogically diligent. Since pedagogy is multifaceted, emphasis in this paper was put on the four major aspects that were found to be summarising an ideal pedagogical environment and the four are; teachers¡¯ preparation to teach, their actual delivery of lessons, assessment and feedback to learners, as well as attendance to any other school assigned duties and meetings. Similarly, given the composite nature of TEPPs, this paper concentrated on three cases of TEPPs which proved exceedingly common in Uganda despite being regarded as ¡°illegitimate¡± by education policy makers and these are; private tutoring (coaching), part-time teaching (multi-school teaching) as well as production and selling of ¡°unedited¡± reading materials (authored pamphlets). The paper surveyed literature related to the meaning, effectiveness as well as justification of TEPPs in Uganda¡¯s education institutions. The study discovered that, although financial inspiration emerge as an overriding ingredient in the meaning of TEPPs, teachers¡¯ interventions in view of seeking better pedagogical opportunities especially through developing catch-up programmes for ¡°deprived¡± children was highly underscored in literature. Secondly, since TEPPs was found to be a catch light to teachers to create a better way of executing effective pedagogical service delivery, it was found defensible for Ugandan teachers although pessimistic voices in literature laments its effectiveness to be deeply struggling in the dilemma of the potential espousal of financial motives over pedagogical ones. Therefore, conducting an empirical study that will collect field data about the current paper¡¯s objectives was recommended.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 457-464. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-10
Pub. Date: July 25, 2021
Undergraduate Medical Students Perception of Immunology Learning Process: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire-based Study from a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital
Original Research
Background: Undergraduate medical education constitutes the preparation of the students towards a broad understanding of human anatomy, physiology, and several other basic, allied, medical, and surgical subjects. Immunology is an integral, and interdisciplinary subject among them, which is generally perceived by the students as a complex one to understand and apply in practice. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was undertaken among the II MBBS students to understand their perception regarding learning experiences of immunology as a subject. The study included 157 students, and all had given oral consent to participate in the study. The data collected from the study were entered into a Microsoft Excel sheet and were used to analyze and generate graphs and tables. Results: More than 90% (n=157) of the students believed that immunology is an integral part of medicine and medical research, and 85% of the students felt that knowledge of immunology is essential while doing clinical practice. Only 58% of students had enjoyed the immunology learning process, and at least 20% of them were unsure if the knowledge in immunology will be of any help to understand other areas of medicine. Conclusions: Students perceive immunology as an important subject that helps them to practice medicine and research. A general perception prevailed among the students regarding the complexity of immunology as a subject, wherein most of them felt that the learning process could be further improved with the use of audio-visual aids and patient/case-oriented/practical teaching.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 449-456. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-9
Pub. Date: July 18, 2021
Students’ Mathematical Creative Thinking Ability with Posing-Exploring-Doing-Evaluating (PEDE) Productive Failure Model in New Normal
Original Research
Students’ creative thinking ability is essential to be developed in Mathematics because it can help students solve everyday life problems. This study aimed to determine the impact of the Posing-Exposing-Doing-Evaluating (PEDE) Productive Failure model on developing students’ creative thinking ability in mathematics in the new normal. The study was conducted at Diplahan National High School of the Division of Zamboanga Sibugay to Grade-11 students enrolled for the school year 2020-2021. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design. The experimental group was exposed to PEDE Productive Failure Model and the control group was exposed to the Conventional Method. Multiple solution tasks were used to measure students’ level of creative thinking ability. A teacher-made test composed of 4-item open-ended questions with a rubric scale that measures mathematical creative thinking ability was the main instrument used in the study. The mean, standard deviation, and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyze the data collected. The analysis revealed that students exposed to PEDE Productive Failure Model performed significantly better in terms of creative thinking ability posttest score. Researchers recommend that Mathematics teachers may use PEDE Productive Failure as a modular learning approach in the new normal to develop creative thinking ability in Mathematics. Teachers might also incorporate activities into their Mathematics modules that demand students to present various clearly defined solutions to foster students' creative potential.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 443-448. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-8
Pub. Date: July 12, 2021
Creative Education in Viet Nam and China: A Case Study of Some Vietnamese and Chinese Schools
Original Research
Faced with the growing demands of society, people must be more and more innovative and creative, because originally creativity is at the heart of social progress, of the prosperity of each nation. Creative education, in practice, promotes the development of the open mind of students by enriching it, nourishes ideas and creative capacity; it is certainly the “main way” to train creative people and thus promote the development of a creative society. Studies on creative education in Vietnam are currently highly recommended with all the more reason in the context of the global renovation of education. However, if creative teaching practices are relatively abundant, the question of what level this education was understood and mastered in Vietnamese schools remains little explored so far. The following article presents the results of research conducted on the reality of creative education in secondary schools in three provinces of North Viet Nam: Hanoi, Nam Dinh and Quang Ninh. The results of the survey will be cross-checked with those obtained in three Chinese provinces of Beijing, Guangdong and Guangxi.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 435-442. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-7
Pub. Date: July 08, 2021
Implementation of Project Based Learning by SolidWorks Application in Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Original Research
The objective of this study is to see an overview or analyze: (1) student learning activity during the pandemic through online learning using the University's LMS. (2) See the improvement of students' drawing skills in Drawing Machine II courses by using Solidwoks application. This research was conducted using Quasi Experiment method and qualitative descriptive. Quasi Experiment design applied in this study is One group Pretest-postest design. Data analysis techniques in this study using the help of spss application /software statistics version 25 for Mac. The purpose of the data analysis technique is to see improved learning outcomes of Drawing Machine II by implementing the Project Based Learning model using the Solidworks application. The data analysis in this study uses non-parametric statistical analysis. The non-parametric statistics used in testing the average comparison hypothesis are independent t-test samples, with wilcoxon testtechniques. The results achieve that: (1) The implementation of Project based Learning by using Solidworks in online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic is proven to increase student activity, as evidenced by the observation of activeness, readiness, and giving rise to ideas or ideas above 90% (“Very active” category). (2) Implementation of Project based Learning by using Solidworks in online learning is proven to improve university student skills/psychomotor knowledge. This is indicated by the value based on the table output “Independent Samples Test” can be known that the significance value of 0.00 < α (0.05), then the H 1 hypothesis is accepted and it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between the average pretest and postest learning outcomes.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 431-434. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-6
Pub. Date: July 07, 2021
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) in Mathematics Learner’s Response towards Synchronous Online Class
Case Study
Developing basic mathematics skills for all children especially those who are diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and math disability is not easy. And the sudden shift from face-to-face classes to online instructional delivery due to the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has been a challenge to them. Hence, this qualitative descriptive-exploratory case study was undertaken to explore the response of a learner with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) with impairment in mathematics towards a synchronous online Orton-Gillingham Math intervention in terms of working behavior. The participant was chosen purposively based on the diagnosis, arithmetic calculation level, and unfamiliarity with the OG-Math intervention. The participant was taught using the OG-Math approach via an online platform for twice-a-week for 4 weeks. The online classes were recorded then transcribed with consent from the participant’s parent and school. The data were analyzed using trustworthy thematic analysis to ensure validity and reliability. The analysis revealed five (5) emerging themes namely symptoms of inattention, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, lowered vigilance, emotional understanding and reactivity, and active class participation. Despite the existence of these responses, the participant was still able to participate actively in synchronous online class and showed emotional competence. It can be concluded that learner-participant with ADHD-SLD with impairment in math can thrive in synchronous online class given her short attention span.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 426-430. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-5
Pub. Date: July 07, 2021
The Unexpected Strategies behind Alternative Genetic Codes
Original Research
This article proposes a number of codon reassignment strategies. These strategies are inferred by comparing the alternative (non-standard) genetic codes to the standard genetic code. Codon reassignments show strong and non-random connection to the standard code. The strategies interconnect all genetic codes and model a selected pathway through the heterotrophic part of life. The article also shows that the codon reassignment strategies model the evolution from the standard to the vertebrate mitochondrial code. Furthermore, it introduces a genetic code table based on third position synonyms that compares the vertebrate mitochondrial code to the standard code.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 417-425. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-4
Pub. Date: July 02, 2021
Social-Emotional Competence among Students with Special Needs: Relationship between Foundational and Applied SEL Skills
Original Research
This study used two waves of data from a multi-dimensional social and emotional measure to examine the role that foundational SEL skills (i.e., Self-Management, Self-Awareness, Social Awareness) and Optimistic Thinking play in developing applied SEL skills (i.e., Goal-Directed Behavior, Personal Responsibility, Relationship Skills, and Decision Making). This study provided evidence that students classified as emotionally disturbed (ED) can benefit from SEL instruction that is embedded within multitiered, positive behavioral support interventions. There was an association between various foundational SEL skills (i.e., Self-Management, Self-Awareness, Social Awareness) and developing applied SEL skills (i.e., Goal-Directed Behavior, Personal Responsibility, Relationship Skills, and Decision Making) over an academic school year. While Optimistic Thinking is not one of the central social-emotional competencies in the CASEL framework, this study provided evidence of its ability to contribute to the development of applied social-emotional competencies.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 410-416. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-3
Pub. Date: July 01, 2021
Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills in Mathematics Using Online-Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (O-POGIL)
Original Research
Mathematics is an essential subject in the Philippines Department of Education (DepEd) K-12 curriculum that requires critical thinking abilities because it is crucial in everyday life along with the growth of other sciences. However, the majority of Filipino students had difficulty understanding mathematical concepts that require higher-order cognitive skills. As a result, students' mathematical process abilities, such as critical thinking, must be strengthened. This study aimed to develop students' critical thinking in mathematics in an online-POGIL environment. The study was conducted to second-year Early Childhood Education students of Pangantucan Bukidnon Community College during the first term of the academic year 2020-2021. It utilized a quasi-experimental Pretest-Post Test Control Group research design. A validated 6-item teacher-made test for critical thinking skills with a reliability coefficient of 0.752 was used to measure students’ critical thinking performance with a rubric scale adapted from St. Petersburg College. Mean and standard deviation was used to evaluate students’ pretest and posttest scores in the critical thinking skills test. A one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the significant effect of O-POGIL on students’ critical thinking skills. The findings showed that O-POGIL motivates students to actively participate in activities and improves their learning. Furthermore, students exposed to O-POGIL showed a substantial improvement, demonstrated on communication, analysis, and problem-solving in mathematics. To improve students' critical thinking skills, it is advised to employ the O-POGIL teaching methodology and design resources based on the O-POGIL construct. Other 21st-century process skills that O-POGIL could build and enhance can be researched further.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 404-409. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-2
Pub. Date: July 01, 2021
Teacher Trainees Readiness for E-learning in Colleges of Education in Ghana
Original Research
Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, the study investigated college students’ readiness for online learning from seven colleges of education in Ghana’s Volta and Oti Regions (UTAUT). The study focused on college students’ eLearning readiness and their perceptions of eLearning in Ghana. The descriptive phenomenological research design was used in this study. Using the convenience sampling technique, seven colleges were chosen from a pool of forty-six colleges of education. The participants were interviewed through WhatsApp and Telegram chats. For this study, the phenomenological data analysis process developed by Colaizzi was used. The findings were organized into the following themes: Adaptability Struggle, The New Digital Divide, A shift in teacher professional development, A shift in teacher professional development, Interactivity, and Time Management. According to the findings, colleges used Google Classroom, WhatsApp, Edmodo, and Telegram for learning and teaching. It was discovered that students face internet connectivity issues, accessibility issues, poor time management, adaptability challenges, technical support issues, high cost of internet bundle challenges with smart devices, and disruption as a result of the need to assist with other domestic activities. Due to the numerous challenges associated with online learning, college students suggest that the teaching and learning should be done in conjunction with face-to-face learning (blended learning) or suspended entirely.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(7), 396-403. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-7-1
Pub. Date: July 01, 2021