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Volume 9, Issue 6

The Effects of Using the Inquiry Learning Model to Develop Critical Thinking Skills in Grade 7 Mathematics Students at the Langsa State Junior High School
Original Research
This research aims to: analyze the effect of the inquiry learning model on the critical thinking skills of seventh grade students at the Langsa State Junior High School and determine the interaction between the learning model and KAM on the critical thinking skills of seventh grade students at the Langsa State Junior High School. This type of research is a quasi-experimental research. The experimental class is class VII.2A, which consists of 32 students and the second roll of paper as the control class is class VII.5B, which consists of 32 students. The results showed that: There is an effect of the inquiry learning model on the critical thinking skills of seventh grade students at the 3 Langsa State Junior High School and there is an interaction between the learning model and KAM on the critical thinking skills of seventh grade students at the 3 Langsa State Junior High School.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 391-395. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-11
Pub. Date: June 29, 2021
Are Women Still Out of the Picture? A 30-year Follow Up on Sex Discrimination in Science Text
Original Research
Textbooks are a fundamental part of classroom instruction. Over 90% of teachers have reported using textbooks in some form [1]. Exposure to textbook material can influence student¡¯s self-concept. Having illustrations that only represent one group prevents diverse role modeling. Providing diverse illustrations increases students capacity to develop self-concept [2]. For example, highlighting female illustrations in a textbook increases a female reader¡¯s self-concept in that subject. Historically science textbooks have been found to be gender bias, showing males more frequency than females [3]. A review of illustrations in high school chemistry textbooks from the 2010s found that male illustrations continue to be used more frequently than female illustrations. The difference in total frequency of male and female illustrations was statistically significantly in high school chemistry textbooks from the 2010s. However, five of the seven chemistry textbooks from the 2010s did not differ significantly in male and female illustration frequency. Illustrations in chemistry textbooks from the 2010s did not exhibit stereotyping, with one gender performing science-related actions more frequently than another. Although high school chemistry textbooks from the 2010s had a reduced gender ratio compared with chemistry textbooks from the 1970s and 1980s, gender bias still existed.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 388-390. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-10
Pub. Date: June 28, 2021
Teachers Stress: A Narrative Inquiry during COVID-19 Pandemic
Original Research
This study aimed to explore the teacher's stress among public and private colleges brought by the COVID-19 Pandemic which was identified in China last December 2019 and has spread around the world. The participants of the research consisted of 11 teachers in the public and 11 teachers in private schools. The data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method and divided into themes, sub-themes, and codes. Revealed in the study was that teachers in the public and private tertiary schools experience stress from the different demands at work, specifically on workload in terms of number of classes online per day, the number of students in the Google classroom for large classes, number of hours spent online in correcting students activities and outputs. The fact that teachers need a strong support system now more than ever and it is important to stay positive and reflect on what the teachers can learn during this time about instructional innovation and transformation. Besides, recommendations have been put forward that online teaching will be effectively implemented shortly along with teachers’ significant training. Teachers have had to deal with symptoms and causes of psychological issues from the start of the pandemic. The lockdown and the travel restrictions changed the dimensions of the teaching profession, as schools had to close to deal with the threat of the pandemic. The teaching situation, therefore, has been grim over the years with less focus on how it affects the teachers. This study, therefore, used a sample of 22 teachers from public and private schools to select teachers from all sides of the teaching sector. They were given a questionnaire, which helped to determine and measure anxiety, stress, and depression. The outcome and discussion proved that teachers have indeed suffered from the pandemic and show a high percentage of stress and depression. There are however other variables such as job stability, which formed the basis for including both private and public college teachers, age, and gender of the teachers. This paper advocate for the protection and safeguarding of the teachers' mental welfare and helps maintain the standards and quality of teaching for the benefit of the students and the teachers.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 382-387. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-9
Pub. Date: June 27, 2021
English – Vietnamese Request Translation of Duong Tuong and Vu Kim Thu in the Novel “Gone with the wind”
Original Research
This paper investigates how to translate English competitive requests with high levels of face-threats into Vietnamese to clearly see the similarities and differences between the source language and two versions of target language by Duong Tuong and Vu Kim Thu. According to specific criteria of expression forms, the way of shifting each subgroup will be in turn analyzed in details. However, due to the length limit, the writer only focuses on Order subgroup as one of the typical among competitive requests. All examples will be presented in the following order: the source language, the translation of Vu Kim Thu (2nd version) and later the translation of Duong Tuong (1st version). After that, the writer will evaluate the strengths and limitations in the translation of two translators.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 376-381. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-8
Pub. Date: June 25, 2021
Creating Effective Educational Video on Youtube Kids for Primary Student
Our scientific research provides direct opinions about the way primary students in Ha Noi are using Youtube. Based on our case studies and through investigations on reality of what exactly happening to be the threat for children, our recommendation that we need to use Youtube Kids as an entertainment and learning tool which is suitable to protect kids from being a subjective victim of negative videos on Youtube. Therefore, we propose to build a healthy and positive Youtube Kids channel suitable to the characteristics of primary school students, in order to orienting them to watch and use appropriate Youtubekids channels.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 368-375. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-7
Pub. Date: June 23, 2021
Enhancing Flexibility in Learning Processes: Simulation Training as an Alternative Mode to Substitute Clinical Practicum during COVID-19
Special Issue
The pre-registration nursing training programmes were facing practical difficulties in arranging clinical practicum to students due to COVID-19 pandemic. In order to ensure clinical competencies of nursing students before their graduation, academics have been exploring strategies to overcome the challenges by enhancing flexibility in the learning processes. Simulation, as a kind of educational technology, with computerized software programmes can replicate real clinical situations in a non-threatening environment for training. It has been supported to enhance nursing students’ clinical competencies. This paper illustrates the development of simulation training curriculum based on the ADDIE model. It was supported that the application of ADDIE model in the instruction development resulted in meeting the learning needs of students and allowed flexibility of learning processes during the pandemic.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 364-367. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-6
Pub. Date: June 22, 2021
Relative Effectiveness of Computer Simulation Instructional Package and Four Mode Application Technique in Teaching Difficult Chemistry Concepts in Secondary Schools in Nigeria
Original Research
The study identified the concept-Electrolysis in Ordinary Level West African School Certificate (WASC) chemistry syllabus as a topic that was not usually well taught by Chemistry Teachers due to either lack of competence or inappropriate pedagogical skills by the Chemistry Teachers. Hence the study examines the relative effectiveness of Computer Simulation Instructional Package (CSI), Four Mode Application Technique (4MAT) and Lecture Method (LM) in improving students’ performance in chemistry. The study adopted a pretest post-test experimental design with lecture method as the control group. The sample consisted of 180 participants selected from three Senior Secondary School II (SSS II) Chemistry Students in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo State. The sample was classified into two experimental groups (CSI 60), (4MAT 60) and a control group (LM 60). A 15 item instrument tagged Electrolysis Chemistry Achievement Test (ECAT) was developed by the researcher and ascertained for reliability (r 0.78, p<0.05). The study was guided by two hypotheses. Data collected were analysed using ANOVA. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the effectiveness of CSI and 4MAT on students’ performance in chemistry f(2,177) 7.121. Furthermore, CSI was found to be more effective (X 11.88) than 4MAT (X 11.03) . The study concluded that CSI is an effective method in teaching electrolysis in secondary schools in Nigeria.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 358-363. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-5
Pub. Date: June 15, 2021
Using the Early Start Denver Model for Chilren with Austism Spectrum Disorders Ages 2-3 Years Old in Specialized Schools: Situation and Lession
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) between the ages of 2 and 3 years old are in the golden phase of early intervention, this is the stage when early interventionists will specify the appropriate intervention direction and intervention services for each child with ASD. The article, which surveyed the current situation of using the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) to educate children with ASD from 2 to 3 years old in a specialized School with 87 teachers and 98 parents of children with ASD, discovered that: The majority of teachers and parents understood the significance and necessity of using the ESDM for children with ASD. Many instructors and parents, on the other hand, continue to struggle with choosing the most appropriate educational objectives, content, methods and forms. Furthermore, elements such as the educational atmosphere, facility conditions, equipment and family cooperation all have an impact on the educational process. We propose lessons learned based on the current status of using ESDM to help teachers and parents better prepare in the process of applying the model to early intervention for children with ASD.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 347-357. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-4
Pub. Date: June 15, 2021
Pre-service Parents Teachers’ Attitude and Perceived Challenges about Inclusive Education in Ghana: The Ghanaian Inclusive Education Policy
Original Research
The inclusion of learners with special educational needs into regular schools is a significant pillar in the New B. Ed Basic Education Curriculum for teacher education in Ghana. Based on this, the study aimed at finding the attitude of pre-service parent teachers and their perceived challenges about inclusive education in Ghana. The study employed a convergent mixed method with a sample of 112 sandwich pre-service parent teachers at the Gambaga College of Education. The quantitative research approach consisted 10-item questionnaire scale adapted from the works of Paseka and Schwab (2020) on ‘Parents’ Attitude towards Inclusive Education’ (PAIE) scale. Data was collected using both the questionnaire and focus group discussion. The analysis of quantitative data involved the use of multiple statistical procedures; frequency counts, simple percentages, and standard deviation, while the inductive thematic analysis (ITA) was used to analyse the qualitative data. The findings revealed that the pre-service parent teachers have positive attitude towards inclusive education. They believed that Ghanaian teachers will be able to recognize their children’s strengths and support them with the appropriate contents in inclusive classroom and they can also work well in a good relationship with learners with special educational needs. However, they stressed on some few challenges that may hinder the effective implementation of inclusive education in Ghana. Among the challenges included inadequate resources and the lack of peaceful cooperation among learners in inclusive environment (such as stigmatization). It is therefore recommended that the government and other significant stakeholders ensure that these challenges are remedied for effective implementation of inclusive education in Ghana.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 341-346. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-3
Pub. Date: June 14, 2021
Introducing Chemistry of Cleaning through Context-Based Learning in a High-School Chemistry Course
Case Study
The following paper discusses the implementation of context-based learning to introduce the concepts associated to chemistry of cleaning in high-school students. The methodology proposed in Chemie im Kontext was followed and adapted with project-based learning to ensure key concepts were assimilated and related to students’ everyday life. In such a way, the focus was drifted to a student-oriented approach in which students used the scientific method to inquire about the way in which cleaning products work from a chemical perspective. A collaborative approach was conducted to deliver a scientific poster that portrayed their work.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 335-340. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-2
Pub. Date: June 07, 2021
Do Military Students’ Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Metacognitive Awareness Matter on Their Problem Solving Performance?
Original Research
The military of every country is viewed as a problem-solving and decision-making branch of government for safety concerns. To enrich the military students’ problem-solving skills and decision-making ability, they must be trained to become excellent problem solvers. This study focused on determining the military students’ personal attributes like their self-concept in mathematics, mathematical beliefs, and metacognitive awareness in relation to their problem-solving performance. The study was conducted in a military school in the Philippines for second-year cadets during the first term of the academic year 2019-2020. This study used a descriptive correlational research design. The instruments used in this study are the mathematics self-concept, mathematical beliefs, and Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). A validated teacher-made test with a reliability coefficient of 0.73 was used with a rubric scale to measure students’ problem-solving performance. The correlation and regression analysis was used to analyze the data collected. Results of the analysis revealed that students’ self-concept in mathematics and metacognitive awareness, self-concept and problem-solving performance, and metacognitive awareness and problem-solving performance has a strong positive correlation while students’ mathematical beliefs and metacognitive awareness, as well as the students’ self-concept in mathematics and metacognitive awareness, showed a low positive association. Further analysis also showed that students’ self-concept in mathematics and metacognitive awareness is found to predict military students’ problem-solving performance. Hence, it is recommended that military school professors need to develop students’ self-concept in mathematics and use metacognitive teaching strategies in teaching mathematics to enhance students’ problems solving skills. Further research can be explored for other factors that may affect military students’ problem-solving skills.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(6), 330-334. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-6-1
Pub. Date: June 04, 2021