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Volume 9, Issue 4

Teaching Friendship Skills to Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Situation and Lessons
Difficulty in communication and social interaction has certain impacts on the skills of making friends and building friendships among adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study focusing on the current status of teaching friendship skills to adolescents with ASD among 125 teachers and 101 parents found that (i) adolescents with ASD mostly struggle with making new friends, participating in group activities, and helping others; (ii) teachers and parents encounter difficulties in selecting the contents, approaches and methods to teach adolescents with ASD to make friends; and (iii) there is a lack of resources that provide teachers and parents with teaching activities and methodology to effectively support adolescents with ASD to make friends.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 235-242. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-13
Pub. Date: April 30, 2021
The Current Situation of Children with Visual Impairment and Multiple Disabilities in Some Special Education Centers in Vietnam
According to many studies around the world, the number of children with visual impairment and multiple disabilities accounts for a large proportion of the total number of visually impaired children (including children who are blind and have low vision). This article was researched on 206 visually impaired children aged 3-11 years studying at special educational centers of eight provinces in Vietnam such as: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh, Da Lat, Hai Phong, Bac Ninh, Da Nang, Dong Nai, Lam Dong. The results showed that the percentage of visually impaired children accounted for 52.5% of the total number of visually impaired children. The degree of other disabilities associated with visual impairment is also different, mainly developmental disorders (visual impairment with autism spectrum disorder accounts for 49.5%, visual impairment with intellectual disability accounts for 24.75%). Children with visual impairment and hearing loss (deaf and blind) accounted for the lowest rate of 3.7%. Identifying exactly multiple disabilities that will help teachers and parents build individual educational plan suit of the child’s needs and abilities.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 229-234. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-12
Pub. Date: April 27, 2021
On IT-Based Academic Credit System in Higher Education in Vietnam
Higher education in Vietnam has applied credit system since 2007. Universities have been developing academic credit system for many years. In fact, along with the change in academic policy, changing the management environment driven by IT is currently a great concern of universities in Vietnam. This paper is conducting a brief review on issues and problems related to academic credit in the higher education in Vietnam, and in term of solving these issues and problems, is proposing the most common model for IT system for academic credit system at universities in Vietnam.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 222-228. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-11
Pub. Date: April 27, 2021
Public Management Challenges in a Local Government Unit in the Philippines: Implications to the Educational Sector
Original Research
Public management challenges encompass all the pressing needs and demands of the citizens to be met for a better governance. This study is geared towards the determinants of the challenges of a Local Government Unit (LGU) along public management and the perceived solutions to the perceived challenges. Employing a total of 118 respondents under Descriptive Research design, the following are known: challenges along public management are addressed by a LGU in the Philippines much better than expected by the respondents and the solutions addressing the challenges in public management are exuded in a great extent. Owing to the foregoing findings, it is concluded that the LGU in the current study is exuding efforts to address the challenges along public management. It is further implied that educational institutions as prime entity in changing the landscape of public management are impinged to restructure the content of the curriculum in public management, reinvent and revitalize the teaching approaches, and forge collaboration with the industry and practitioners towards academe-industry complementation.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 218-221. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-10
Pub. Date: April 27, 2021
Development of Product-Based E-modul of Manufacturing Helical Gears in Mechanical Engineering
Original Research
The general objective of this study was to develop an e-module of manufacturing helical gears on milling machines, and the specific objectives of the study consisted of: (1) describing the development steps of the e-module, and (2) analyzing the users’ responses to the e-module. This study involved the development steps of the ADDIE model including analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. A likert scale with four variations of answers was used in this study. The data were analyzed by quantitative descriptive and inter-rater reliability. The results showed that the developed product-based e-module have fulfilled good criteria of materials, media and feasibility from the users. The results revealed that: (1) the e-module was considered very good by the material experts in the aspects of self instructional, self contained, stand alone, adaptive and user friendly with the feasibility percentage of 94.16%. Furthermore, the media experts also assessed the e-module as good with the feasibility percentage of 80% in the ascpects of verbal, visual, programming and module component; (2) the users’ response was very good with the feasibility percentage of 85.39%. The accuracy level was also good based on the teachers’ evaluation with a mean score of 0.729.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 212-217. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-9
Pub. Date: April 26, 2021
Data on the Implementation of Distance Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Data Report
This data contains information about the implementation of distance learning carried out by elementary school teachers in Yogyakarta during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data presented is used as a GAP analysis to implement distance learning with home learning guidelines issued by the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey instrument was developed based on three essential elements in learning: planning, implementing, and evaluating the teachers in elementary schools. Expert validation test using CVR produces 20 items that match. The survey involved 261 teacher respondents spread across the city of Yogyakarta. The crosstabulation method was carried out to determine the relationship between teachers’ teaching experiences and readiness to carry out distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results crosstab analysis can be used to develop teachers’ ability to plan, implement, and evaluate distance learning if similar conditions recur in the future. The existing data also illustrates the readiness of elementary school teachers in Yogyakarta in facing the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era, where all fields require IT skills, including in education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 203-211. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-8
Pub. Date: April 25, 2021
Teachers’ Handling of Ethical Dilemmas in Rubaga Division (Uganda): Complexities and Education Management Implications
Original Research
Motivated by the desire to explain increased misconduct among teachers in Uganda, the study sought to explore the different ethical dilemmas faced by secondary school teachers in Rubaga Division (Kampala - Uganda). More specifically, the study sought to find out the kind of ethical dilemmas faced by the teachers; to assess teachers’ use of available legal frameworks to address the dilemmas; and, finally, to find out how teachers navigate through the dilemmas. The study used a descriptive case study design, and employed both a self-administered questionnaire and an interview guide as instruments. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that teachers indeed encounter a multitude of ethical dilemmas. However, available legal frameworks are rarely used to solve the dilemmas or, if used, they are found to be quite irrelevant. Lastly, it was discovered that teachers apply a variety of both professional and odd strategies to navigate through the dilemmas. The study concluded that teaching being dynamic, teachers cannot operate without encountering ethical dilemmas: forewarned is fore guarded. Secondly, though necessary, external legislation (laws and policies) can only constitute the necessary but not the sufficient condition for smoothly navigating through ethical complexities. Lastly, ethical dilemmas ultimately call for more strongly formed and informed consciences (internal legislation) rooted on a strong moral compass such as virtue ethics. Educational administration and management implications are also discussed.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 194-202. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-7
Pub. Date: April 16, 2021
Influence of Female Head Teachers’ Level of Competence on Management of Public Primary Schools in Kenya: A Case of Loitokitok Sub County, Kajiado County
Original Research
Leadership in education plays an important role of transformation in society and for this to happen, effective leaders are critical. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of female head teachers’ level of competence on the management of primary schools. This study employed triangulation design which involved qualitative and quantitative methods. The target population in this study comprised of 771 teachers and 1 Sub-County Quality Assurance and Standards Officer (SCQASO) from which a sample size of 78 respondents was selected using Purposive, stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Primary data were collected using self administered questionnaires and interviews. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) v 20. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically and presented in narrative form. The findings revealed that majority of the female head teachers were competent in managing school finances. The study recommends that the government institutes policies to ensure and strengthen gender parity in all the sectors of the economy so as to empower women with leadership positions.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 188-193. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-6
Pub. Date: April 16, 2021
Changes in the Quality of Life in the Victorian Empire
Original Research
The Victorian Empire experienced lots of major changes that affected living standards profoundly in different stages of Victorian period. Victorian society bore witness to major penetrating changes at an unprecedented pace, which affected the social, economic, political and educational structure profoundly. It was inevitable that economic progress and industrialization led to population growth in urban life, with the urbanization of rural areas, the intensification of the growth of towns, the coming of the railways, better sanitation, higher living standards, while at the same time the Industrial Revolution created a gap between employers and workers during this mechanization process. These groundbreaking changes naturally transgressed the stereotypical gender roles, by making middle-class women pursue more social rights and independence in both education and work sphere and by attacking the patriarchal structure of the society that condemns women to domestic imprisonment. The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the changes in the quality of life in Victorian Empire, mainly depending upon social, industrial, economic, gender and demographic issues and question whether these changes produced better or worse living conditions during the years between 1837 and 1901.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 180-187. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-5
Pub. Date: April 14, 2021
Leadership and Women Representation Riddle in Ghana
Original Research
This paper interrogates the efficacy of women in authority and how it impacts the lives of underprivileged women in society. The hypothesis suggests that women in authority better represent the interest of vulnerable women and children if given opportunity at the decision-making levels in a country’s body politic. Feminist groups who champion this supposition argue, that the story of women has long been told by men and hence, there is the need for women to tell their own story. But how have women in leadership demonstrated their capacity to issues that reflect the interest of women? Using primary and secondary data, the authors analyzed the extent to which the interest of women has been represented by the women who have increasingly held very influential political and administrative positions in Ghana. The paper conceptualized the interest of women minimally to include alleged sexual demands as a quid pro quo for employment or positions, accusation of witchcraft, maternity leave with pay and inheritance. The findings suggest that, women in leadership have demonstrated a great zeal for women’s emancipation. However, there is more room for improvement to convince the ordinary Ghanaian woman that women in authority adequately represent the interest of all women especially the poor and vulnerable in society. The authors recommend a united front among women in academia, CSOs and the media to mount ‘pressure’ on women occupying influential positions to prioritize resolving politico-socio-economic challenges that confront vulnerable women in the Ghanaian society.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 169-179. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-4
Pub. Date: April 12, 2021
Knowledge and Attitude of Indigenous People towards COVID-19 Pandemic in Ebonyi State, Southeastern, Nigeria
Original Research
Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic came like a storm that shook the whole world. The response of many government was lockdown and restriction in movement. But in most rural communities information on the actual reasons for the lockdown were scanty. Many were rather curios as their markets, schools, transportation and social lives were disrupted by the government without adquate enlightment. This study was done to asses the level of knowledge and attitude of the indigenous rural dwellers in Ebonyi State towards the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Descriptive statistics was adopted to asses the knowledge and attitude of the rural dwellers towards COVID-19. One community each from the three senatorial zone were selected. Out of 150 respondents, 86% are men and 64% are women. Structured questionaire were administered directly to responders after due explanation. The questionnaire was completed and given back to the researcher. Result - Three communities were covered for the 150 respondents, 58% of the respondents are in the age group of 20-35 years, 30% are in the age group of 36-55 years, only 12 % is from the age group of above 56- and above years. Awareness- Only 40.3% of the respondents are aware of the Corona Virus disease. 36% of the respondents are heard from radio, 37% of them heard from friends, 35.5% heard from government agency, 48% heard from community health workers, 49% heard from social media. Only 20% knew the causative agent of COVID-19, while 13.3% knew about the signs and symptoms, 10% of responders knew about the methods of transmission. 16.7% are aware of the possible prevention methods. 38.7% considered it a new disease, while 30% considered it a health challenge. Knowledge of the preventive measures such as: Handwashing regularly with soap and water, use of hand sanitizers and face mask and social distancing protocol were also negative. Conclussion: There were paucity of knowledge and negative attitude of indigenous rural dwellers towards COVID-19 pandemic among the indigenous rural dwellers in Ebonyi State.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 162-168. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-3
Pub. Date: April 06, 2021
Pre - service Teachers Transversal Competencies in Exploring the 21st Century World
Original Research
The increasingly intertwined world of technology and science and in the context of scientific and technological development, we are challenged to create an education system that can contribute to the production of human resources capable of helping to build a knowledge-conscious social and economic order in accordance with human needs of the 21st century. Furthermore, formal education at all levels, faces the great challenge of preparing students for the forthcoming era of a new revolution. This research is aimed to assess the Pre-service teachers’ competencies in exploring the 21st century world. Employing an adopted questionnaire in a descriptive type of research, the respondents’ competencies in exploring the 21st century world were determined and evaluated. Results showed that BEED III respondents’ skills are habitually improved however BEED IV continuously enhanced their skills. Furthermore, sex have an impact on the 21st century skills of the respondents. Moreover, age and ethnic affiliation of third year group have an impact however ethnic affiliation of fourth year group have an influence on the skills of the respondents. Likewise, the 21st century skills of the junior and fourth year group is significantly related to their socio- demographic profile. Implications to theory, practice and policy, since junior respondents are still on the process of developing their skills, training on enhancement skills is necessary. Identify opportunities in teacher exchange programs for the development of world-class teacher. Social constructivism for learning is used in the development of the Flipped Learning teaching model and social development for learning takes place within some socio-cultural setting.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 157-161. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-2
Pub. Date: April 06, 2021
Developing Integrated Teaching Capacity Following STEM Educational Orientation for Pedagogical Chemistry Students
Original Research
The development of integrated teaching capacity following STEM educational orientation for students of Universities of Education in Vietnam is being concerned. Through surveying 104 Chemistry teachers in high school in Dak Nong province, 76 Chemistry teachers in Thua Thien- Hue province, 112 Chemistry teachers in Thai Nguyen province- the school years 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 with different awareness levels of integrated teaching, and survey on improvement needs for integrated teaching capacity under STEM educational orientation as well. The reality of the awareness and improvement needs in integrated teaching under STEM educational orientation of Chemistry teachers in high schools shows that the addition of the theoretical basis for integrated teaching, STEM education and application in the teaching process to form an integrated teaching capacity for students is very necessary. Based on the survey results and the basis of determining the structure of integrated teaching capacity, we have identified an integrated teaching capacity framework and proposed methods to develop integrated teaching capacity using STEM educational orientation for pedagogical chemistry students. We conducted pedagogical experiments on third-year and fourth-year students-the formal educational training program concentrated at the university of Education-Thai Nguyen University (215 students) and University of Education-Hue University (182 students) with 03 integrated teaching topics. Evaluating the progress of each student group about the designing capacity in integrated teaching topics and products for integrated teaching topics; evaluating the integrated teaching capacity of pedagogical students through the questionnaire. Experimental results after statistical processing show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(4), 146-156. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-4-1
Pub. Date: April 06, 2021