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Volume 8, Issue 9

When Education Becomes an Empowering Act: Learning Fallacies Analysis
Original Research
In this paper the author argues that education in the Moroccan context, either in high schools or in universities, is rarely used to empower students by arming them with the basic critical-thinking skills to cope with the challenges of the modern world. Many researchers and teachers complain that schools are becoming like "exam factories" and that the prevailing model of education in schools, especially in the developing world, is banking education. In banking education, the teacher is a bank of knowledge and their role consists in filling their students¡¯ heads with information. Students are rarely given the chance to question the input they receive from their teacher. Thus, in this paper the author calls for an alternative mode of education. This mode of education is problem-posing education [1]. By problem-posing education the author means education which makes students think critically about the knowledge and the discourses they receive from school and from society as a whole [1]. As Freire [1] suggests, problem-posing education is an alternative to the banking model of education; it is an empowering education which can lead students to acquire critical consciousness. In this paper, the author will depict how problem-posing education can be carried out through teaching Argumentation Theory, especially the teaching of fallacies analysis. In a study conducted in a Moroccan university, 25 students in an English master's class were given a course of critical reading which lasted for one semester. A pre- and a post-test were conducted before and after the intervention took place. Results suggest that students' critical-thinking abilities have developed at two levels. The first level is students' ability to detect fallacies in discourses and the second level is students' acquisition of a new meta-language to describe the argumentative structure of discourses.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 731-738. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-16
Pub. Date: October 07, 2020
328 Views154 Downloads1 Likes
Impact of Empirical Antibiotic Choice on the Clinical Outcomes of Patients Admitted to ICU with Sepsis and Septic Shock
Original Research
Introduction: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection. Sepsis is associated with high mortality rate. Early recognition and administration of appropriate empirical antibiotics therapy is associated with better outcomes; lower mortality rate and reduced length of stay. Objective: To assess the impact and appropriateness of empirical antibiotic choice on the clinical outcomes of sepsis and septic shock in intensive care department. Methods: The study included 53 patients admitted to Intensive Care Units. The type of empirical antibiotic was compared with the sensitivity profile of culture results. The clinical outcome was assessed as mortality or ICU discharges. Results: In this study, 58% of the patients were females and 50.9% were above 65 years. The most common risk factor for sepsis was recent hospitalization (32%) followed by diabetes mellitus (15%). The most common site of infection was the chest (34%). The majority of patients (81.1%) received combination empirical antibiotics. Patients who received appropriate empirical antibiotics had higher ICU discharge rates (P=0.001). Mortality rate was 67.9%; more than half of deaths (58%) occurred among patients with septic shock (P= 0.001). Conclusion: The use of appropriate empirical antibiotics in the management of sepsis and septic shock would result in better patient outcomes.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 727-730. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-15
Pub. Date: September 28, 2020
458 Views296 Downloads
Unearthing Motives that Propel Pre-service Teachers Venture into Special Education Career at the University of Zambia
Original Research
This study contributes to the discourse on the motives that propel pre-service teachers venture into special education. Studies on education are not yet conclusive on why special schools should continue to experience shortage of teachers in special education when universities churn-out graduates in the field every year, thereby questioning the motive of special education students. In this case study, we interrogated the motives of pre-service teachers that propelled them to venture in Special education at the University of Zambia. The findings indicate that a minority had intention of pursuing special education from the onset, while the majority never desired to pursue special education. Pre-service teachers were propelled by a strong desire to advocate for Human Rights of the marginalised, become inclusive teachers, and amass economical gains. Overall, the findings of this study have serious ramification as they show the need for curriculum transformation in favour of inclusive education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 718-726. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-14
Pub. Date: September 26, 2020
758 Views406 Downloads2 Likes
Unlocking Graduates’ Employability: The Case of Technical High School Graduates of the Diamaré Division, Far North Region, Cameroon
Original Research
The 21st century job market has become very competitive and exigent, as it commands relevant and quality skills as the main prerequisite for graduates to obtain gainful job positions. It therefore becomes imperative for formal education and training institutions to rethink and reshape their skill development plans, strategies, and actions, in order to squarely respond to the challenging needs imposed by this permanently evolving labor market. This means that graduates smooth transition and being maintained in a gainful job position in today’s labor market could be hampered if they are not in possession of the right skills. Using Government Technical High school (GTHS) graduates undergoing further training at the National Employment Fund(NEF), this paper investigated the extent to which Technical, Vocational Education and Training(TVET) Inputs in GTHS Maroua and SALAK influence graduate employability in the Diamaré division. TVET inputs were understood in terms of educational policy implementation, curriculum, infrastructures, and partnership. The methodology consisted of a mixed design, data was collected through likert scale questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. The multi-regression was used to determine the degree of association between variables. The results revealed that, at an alpha level of 0,05, all four TVET inputs are statistically significant predictors of graduate employability in the Diamaré. This means that technical high school graduates will continue to swell unemployment and underemployment figures if TVET inputs in these schools are not revitalized. Suggestions called for the adaptation of policy definitions and curriculum to local realities, enforce policy implementation, increase finances to obtain quality basic and workshop infrastructures, and to engage in systematic volunteerism, and an equilateral partnership between government- training schools-business world.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 705-717. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-13
Pub. Date: September 26, 2020
596 Views287 Downloads2 Likes
Relationship between Senior High School Students’ Mathematics Self-Efficacy, Self-concept and Their Mathematics Achievement in Twifo Hemang Lower Denkyira District, Ghana
Original Research
The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between senior high school students’ mathematics self-efficacy, self-concept and their mathematics achievement in Twifo Hemang Lower Denkyira District of the Central Region of Ghana. A probability stratified random sampling technique was used to obtain representatives of the two schools under consideration in the proportion of the population of the two schools. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) form two students were involved in the study. The research design adopted was correlational design and the instruments developed and used for obtaining relevant data for the study was the Likert scale type of questionnaire and achievement test. An independent sample t-test was conducted to find the differences in achievement scores of low and high mathematics self-efficacy and self-concept students. The major result established in the study was that students’ mathematics self-efficacy correlated students’ mathematics achievement. The result also established that students’ mathematics self-concept did not correlate with their mathematics achievement. In view of this, it was recommended that constructs that are related to students’ academic performance should be given prominent attention. For example, teachers of mathematics must make frantic efforts at all times to increase students’ mathematics self-efficacy when teaching so that students would be able to overcome the challenges they face when learning mathematics subject.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 698-704. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-12
Pub. Date: September 26, 2020
555 Views346 Downloads
Cooperative Learning Strategy and Students Performance in Mathematics in Junior High School in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana
Original Research
The study investigated the effect of cooperative learning strategy on student’s performance in mathematics at selected Junior High School in Volta Region of Ghana. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. The sample for the study consisted of two hundred and sixty-six (266) Junior High School 2 mathematics students selected from two Junior High Schools in Hohoe municipality of Volta Region in Ghana. The instrument for data collection was Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The instrument was validated by two experts and has reliability index of 0.87 obtained through the use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Two objectives and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The data collected were analyzed using adjusted mean and standard deviation to answer the objectives while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypothesis at alpha level of 0.05. The finding of the study confirmed that students performed better using cooperative learning strategy irrespective of their ability level than those students who were taught using the traditional method. The test of interaction showed that gender had no significant interaction with teaching strategy on students mean performance. The study concluded that cooperative learning strategy is a good teaching method for teaching mathematics. The study recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt the cooperative learning strategy in order to improve students’ performance, social interaction skills and foster meta-cognition in students. The study also recommended that workshops should be organized by educational bodies to emphasize and enlighten teachers and mathematics educators on the importance of using cooperative learning strategy in the learning and teaching in Junior High schools in Ghana.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 693-697. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-11
Pub. Date: September 26, 2020
393 Views198 Downloads
Predictors of Teaching Learning Process
Original Research
Teaching Learning Process (TLP) is an important construct in the education domain as it explains how teaching aids the learning process. The present study is an extension of the same TLP concept, wherein an attempt has been made to examine the relationship between perceived teacher attribute and student achievement. Using a quasi-experimental design, the efficacy of 16 perceived teacher attributes and student achievement were measured on 121 students for one full academic year. The results suggested that five key attributes of teacher viz. optimism, attitude, aptitude, inclusive, and cultural affinity were significantly responsible for higher academic achievement among students. EFE enable to emerge three factors namely Systemic perspective; Emotional and critical perspective; and Role and identity perspective. Subsequently Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed using SEM wherein the relationship between the three factors and the student achievement were examined which was found to be significant.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 685-692. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-10
Pub. Date: September 24, 2020
598 Views351 Downloads
Embedding Proof-Writing in Phenomenon-based Learning to Promote Students’ Mathematical Creativity
Original Research
The study aimed to identify the significant impact of phenomenon-based learning and embedding proof writing to this new teaching strategy on students’ mathematical creativity in tertiary education. The study used a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design. There were 2 experimental groups, one exposed to phenomenon-based learning alone and the other was exposed to phenomenon-based learning with classroom proof-writing activities, and one control group exposed to the conventional method. Multiple solution tasks were used to measure students’ level of creativity. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and ANCOVA. The analysis revealed that students exposed to phenomenon-based learning with proof writing had the highest posttest creativity score. Students in this group had a significantly higher level of creativity among the three groups. Further, students exposed to phenomenon-based learning alone may not outperform students exposed to phenomenon-based learning with proof writing, but they still had significantly higher posttest mean scores compared to students exposed to the conventional type of teaching. The researchers recommend to teachers in tertiary education to use phenomenon-based learning with proof writing in teaching mathematics and its related courses since this instructional approach engages students in learning that is more focused to real-life issues, apply skills and knowledge from different subjects, and enhance important skills like creativity, problem-solving, communication, and teamwork.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 676-684. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-9
Pub. Date: September 17, 2020
567 Views307 Downloads1 Likes
Practical Teaching Method and Performance of Colleges of Education ICT Students in Volta Region, Ghana
Original Research
The study investigated the effects of demonstration teaching method on performance of Colleges of Education ICT students with different learning styles (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global) in Volta Region. Quasi - experimental design was adopted, specifically the pre-test, post-test non-equivalent control group design was used. Sample size of 168 level 200 students drawn from two randomly sampled Colleges of Education in the Volta Region of Ghana was used. To direct the study, two research questions were formulated, and two null hypotheses. Frequency count, mean and standard deviation were used to answer questions from the study while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The researcher adopted Two instruments tagged ICT Performance Test (ICTPT) and Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire (ILSQ) from Felder and Solomon (2004) to collect data. The instruments used were both subjected to face and content validity. The reliability co-efficient of test-retest was computed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient. The result of this was a reliability co - efficient of 0.84 for CPT. The ILSQ was used for the identification of students’ learning styles. The internal consistency for each of the learning styles were determined with Cronbach Alpha the result of which a reliability index of 0.88 for active/reflective, 0.82 for sensing/intuitive, 0.85 for visual/verbal, and 0.79 for sequential/global learning styles. The findings revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean scores of students taught ICT using practical method. A significant difference was however found to exist in the academic performance of ICT Major students with different learning styles using demonstration and lecture, method. Based on the research findings, it is recommended that ICT teachers identify students' learning styles and use teaching strategies that support them, among others.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 668-675. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-8
Pub. Date: September 17, 2020
496 Views305 Downloads
Strategies for Schools to Prevent Psychosocial Stress, Stigma, and Suicidality Risks among LGBTQ+ Students
Review Article
As key centers for adolescent development, schools present sites for intervention ensuring the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ+) students. Given mounting evidence on the association between LGBTQ+ identities, negative school climates, and disparities in mental health and suicidality, schools must maintain inclusive environments. This review focuses on strategies for schools to emerge as gateways to improved mental health and resilience among LGBTQ+ students. This study provides clear recommendations, including supporting anti-bullying policies, LGBTQ+-inclusive curricula, and safe spaces, for counselors, educators, school policy makers, and other stakeholders in school ecosystems to intervene professionally on behalf of LGBTQ+ students. The implications of this study help school counselors to be catalysts moving schools to better serve LGBTQ+ students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 659-667. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-7
Pub. Date: September 14, 2020
630 Views307 Downloads1 Likes
Virtual Learning and Readiness of Tutors of Colleges of Education in Ghana
Original Research
COVID 19 has thrown a new challenge to tutors in the colleges of education in Ghana. The purpose of this study was to examine tutors’ readiness in the use of virtual/digital learning classrooms in the Colleges of Education in Ghana. The study employed an analytical survey design. The study targeted tutors in the colleges of education in Ghana. The sample size for the study was 590 (495 tutors and 95 students). Focused group discussion was used to validate the data obtained from the tutors that is why the tutor number is greater than that of the students. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and focused-group discussion. The hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using Pearson point-biserial correlation coefficient. The study found that tutors have not acquired any formal training in how to do the blended learning and also use virtual learning platforms in their lesson deliveries. The study also revealed that tutors’ pedagogical skills in delivering virtual lessons have a positive relationship on students’ achievement. The study recommended that tutors should be adequately trained on how to use virtual learning platforms. The study again recommended that all colleges of education should have a robust LMS that would curb future occurrences, and policies on LMS should be implemented.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 653-658. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-6
Pub. Date: September 14, 2020
568 Views345 Downloads
The History of Educational Language Policies in Uganda: Lessons from the Past
Original Research
Education language policies in Uganda are traced way back in 1890’s during the first missionary activities. Since then, Uganda has had several commissions which tried to sort out the issues of language in education. This paper makes a collection and commentary on those commissions. The commissions are presented in different sections in this paper according to the period of occurrence. The sections are: (1) The Colonial Period 1894-1960, (2) The Post World War II Period 1944-1961, (3) The Post-Colonial Period 1963-1988 and (4) The 1989 Kajubi Education Policy Review Commission. In all the debates, arguments were rotating around the use of English only, mother tongue / vernacular only, or both. To date, similar debates are still going on in Uganda. For a multilingual country, the most appropriate language policy in education would be of a multilingual nature.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 643-652. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-5
Pub. Date: September 14, 2020
470 Views288 Downloads
Exploring the Perception of Headmasters’ Transformational Leadership of the Community Secondary Schools in Nepal
Original Research
This qualitative study examines how community schools' can be transformed from headmasters' (HMs) Transformational Leadership. The purpose of the study is how Transformational Leadership of headmasters is perceived by Headmasters, school management committee (SMC) members and teachers. The author purposefully selected three best community schools which were transformed by headmasters' transformational leadership in Devdaha municipality of Rupandehi district. In this study, the researcher focused on headmasters’ Transformational Leadership as a case. So, this study fallows the exploratory case study design and described interpretively. The results of the study showed that Transformational Leadership of HMs play a crucial role in the success of the community secondary schools. Co-ordinate to their members, serious presentation of discussion on the issue, and transparent financial activities, respect the view of all teachers and staffs, motivation, equal behaviour of teacher and staff, significant understanding on problems, rules by the policy, cooperation, rewards, not criticize in the group, collectivity, etc. are the knowing behaviour of Transformational Leader and this has contributed to the all-round development of the school have proved to be important. The findings of this article appeared if headmasters practice the Transformational Leadership in school, it has greatly contributed to the transformation and development of community schools in Nepal.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 633-642. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-4
Pub. Date: September 14, 2020
1670 Views1049 Downloads7 Likes
Teachers’ Perception of Letter Grading System and Its Challenges a Qualitative Study in Vyas Municipality of Tanahun
Original Research
This article has been written on the issues of teachers’ perception of the Letter Grading System (LGS) and its challenges in the context of Vyas Municipality of Tanahun along the current academic years of 2020. Its purpose is to explore the teachers’ perception of LGS and identify how to face the major challenges of it. This study is based on phenomenological design and preferred to social constructivism on the concern of postmodernism. I employ purposeful sampling methods and use a tool of a semi-structured interview protocol for data collection. Basically, the teachers’ experience is found about the LGS that is positively relevant, applicable, enthusiastic, and appropriate for challenging the education system in Nepal. However, students and their parents’ perceptions are being simply ensuing liberal promotion policy with an upgrade to their child without any obstructions. Thus, there is a gap between the practices of the evaluation procedure and the perception of teachers about the LGS for getting betterment of students ‘output. As I explore, the LGS has measured the student’s competency and cognitive domain on the basis of nine progressive scales in regard to their providing performance opportunity. At last but not least, through the opinion of experience teacher, I conclude that LGS has, however, biased less, accountable, fruitful, and merit-based measuring tools of evaluation in the field of education without incorporated non-standardized tests in school evaluation at present. If possible, to incorporate non-testing devices as assignment, LGS has far better in evaluation procedure in school evaluation system in modern times.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 622-632. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-3
Pub. Date: September 11, 2020
1018 Views635 Downloads
Effects of Mastery-Based Learning Approach on Pre-service Mathematics Teachers’ Geometry Performance in Volta Region Colleges of Education, Ghana
Original Research
This study investigated the effect of mastery-based learning approach on pre-service mathematics teachers’ performance in geometry in Volta Region Colleges of Education, Ghana. Two research questions and two hypotheses, evaluated at the level of.05 alpha, guided the analysis. The study had adopted a quasi-experimental approach for testing. Two colleges were sampled on purpose. Participated in this study was a group of 87 first years of the four year bachelor of education pre-service mathematics teachers program. Data was collected for the research before and after the treatment using multiple choice test items. The validated instrument had a reliability of 0.80. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and Covariance Analysis (ANCOVA). The study found that the use of mastery-based learning approach had a positive effect on the learning achievement of pre-service teachers as compared with the traditional method of teaching geometry and there was a slightly higher mean achievement scores in favor of the male. There was a significant disparity between the mean achievement scores of students exposed to mastery-based learning approach and traditional approach of teaching elementary geometry, both pre- and post-test. Also, the achievement score of male and female pre-service teachers taught using mastery-based learning methodology was not significantly different. The study recommended among others the adoption of mastery-based learning approach in teaching geometry, since it has proven to aid improved pre-service teachers’ learning achievement in geometry.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 615-621. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-2
Pub. Date: September 09, 2020
552 Views349 Downloads
Provision and Effective Usage of Instructional Materials in Primary Schools in the Three Senatorial Zones of Niger State, Nigeria
Original Research
This study examines the provision and effective usage of Instructional Materials in Primary Schools in Niger State. The study was carried out in the three senatorial zones of Niger State. Descriptive survey designed was adopted for the study. Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The sample of three hundred (120) Teachers including the Head-teachers was draw from the population through random sampling technique from the three senatorial zones using ten (10) primary schools from each Senatorial Zone of Bida, Minna/Suleja and Kontagora. The instrument Provision, Availability and Effective Use of Instructional Materials in Primary Schools (PAEUIMP) was used for data collection after been validated by three research experts and pilot test was conducted to ascertain its reliability. The reliability was obtained using Cronbach Alpha with index of 0.79.Simple percentage was used to analyzed the demographic data while Inferential statistics of t-test was used to test the five the research hypotheses formulated. The results revealed among others that instructional materials are not sufficiently available in all the Zones while male teachers use instructional materials more frequently than their female counterparts’ and teachers qualification and teaching experience also do affect the usage of instructional materials. It is therefore recommended that government should intensify effort in the provision of more instructional materials to primary schools in the state, workshop should be organize for teachers on the effective use instructional materials and government should also supervise and monitor the fund allocated for the purchase of instructional materials.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(9), 609-614. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-9-1
Pub. Date: August 30, 2020
541 Views336 Downloads