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Volume 8, Issue 7

Parental Incentive and Student’s Performance in SAEB 2015 Portuguese Language Evaluation: Does Parental Incentive Compensate for Mean Differences by Sex?
Original Research
Since the 1960s, the sociology of education has inequalities as one of its central themes. From the 1980s, studies on school effectiveness analyzed a set of school characteristics that are associated with students learning. At the same time, emerges another study field that analyzes the relationships between family and school pointing out differences in the type of family incentive to schooling [1,2,3]. However, there is still a gap in Brazilian national production relating to student achievement in standardized national evaluations to an indicator that brings together parenting practices to monitor children’s schooling. Thus, the objective in this essay is to create a parental incentive indicator based on the data from SAEB 2015, applied to the 9th grade, and to associate it with the performance of municipal and state school students at SAEB 2015 Portuguese Language Evaluation. The results state that the presence of the high parental incentive increases the students' average results, however, the presence of the high parental incentive does not compensate for the mean differences when compared with the student's gender variable. In other words, regardless of the degree of parental incentive received, within the same socioeconomic level group, girls perform better in the SAEB 2015 Portuguese Language Evaluation than boys.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 508-512. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-9
Pub. Date: July 31, 2020
960 Views649 Downloads
Developing an Evidence-Based Evaluation Tool for Continuous Improvement Program of the Department of Education
Original Research
The study aimed to formulate a credible evaluation tool for the Continuous Improvement (CI) Program of School-Based Management (SBM) schools in the Philippines. Participants involved 6 CI Masters and 30 program implementers of the Department of Education in SOX Region. Self-survey questionnaires and an evidence-based evaluation tool were utilized in data gathering. The research was carried out through mixed methods that essentially pooled quantitative and qualitative data. Findings indicated that the developed evaluation tool demonstrated a high validity suggesting its suitability and accuracy. Generally, the CI teams viewed their programs as very well implemented along with these dimensions, namely: strategic management, operational management, change adoption, stakeholder analysis, and CI sustainability. With the use of the evidence-based tool, the researcher’s assessment showed that schools have remarkable implementation as manifested by its well-presented, organized, and functional documents across all dimensions. The statistical test concluded that the researchers’ program evaluation is quite higher than the CI teams’ perceptions. The direct observation and knowledge of the researcher on the actual evidence are more independent, accurate, and objective than the mere perceptions of the implementers themselves. Ultimately, the best practices of schools were articulated in effectively executing and sustaining the continuous improvement initiatives.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 502-507. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-8
Pub. Date: July 27, 2020
432 Views332 Downloads1 Likes
Discussing the Conditional Probability from a Cognitive Psychological Perspective
Original Research
Probability signifies the most obscure and the least achievable content among other mathematics areas; particularly, the conditional probability concept that should not be left behind any standard course of probability from primary to university level. Moreover, understanding the conditional probability becomes more serious when the discussion fits into the field of teacher education, wherein the prospective mathematics teachers need not only to learn it but also to promote their pupils’ conditional probability reasoning. From this aspect, the current study aims at exploring the prospective mathematics teachers’ conditional probability reasoning from a cognitive psychological perspective that focuses on how their minds work. Accordingly, the generic inductive approach has been employed. Hence, a purposive sample of the university students who study in a four-year mathematics teacher preparation program has been selected. After analyzing the school curriculum of probability, an authentic conditional probability situation has been utilized. Following this, the students’ interpretations have been translated, coded, and categorized using NVivo software. As a result, the generalizer (58.8%), conservative (11.8%), correlational (23.5%), and the rational thinker (5.9%) have been defined as the primary models of conditional probability reasoning. Furthermore, while the generalizer and conservative thinkers both share the anchoring and adjustment bias, the illusion of validity has been operated by only the conservatives. Besides, the one-step, availability, causality, and gambler fallacy, were the correlational thinkers' assigned biases. On the other side, the rational thinkers have reached a high level of contextual knowledge, with understanding the idea of sample space reduction.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 491-501. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-7
Pub. Date: July 19, 2020
660 Views580 Downloads
Impact of Integrating Videos and Animations on Conceptual Understanding of Cardiovascular Anatomy and Physiology. A Case of Applied Science and Technology First-year Students at Mukuba University
Original Research
The problem of difficulties in conceptual understanding of certain topics in Biology has pervaded all levels of education including universities. This study investigated the impact of integrating videos and animations in Applied Human Anatomy and Physiology (BIO 102) lessons on students’ conceptual understanding of the Cardiovascular Anatomy and Physiology. The study was an action research conducted by the practitioners to improve practice and the quality of learning. First-year students in the School of Applied Science and Technology taking BIO 102 constituted the target population. The total sample size was 42; 40 females and 2 males. The research design was quasi-experimental, specifically the randomized subjects, pretest-posttest control group design. Purposive sampling was used to select students of interest to the study while subjects were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. Data collection was done using a Biology Achievement test and a Likert-type Attitude questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (Means and standard deviations) were used to analyze the data while the independent samples t-test was used to test for any statistically significant difference in the average Achievement in the two groups before and after the experiment. The findings from this study indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in the average Achievement of students’ when videos and animations are integrated into the lectures and when they are not. The independent samples t-test in the post-test was significant with t, (39) = 12.708, P> 0.05. It can, therefore, be concluded that integrating videos and animations in Physiology and Anatomy lessons significantly improves conceptual understanding.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 485-490. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-6
Pub. Date: July 08, 2020
681 Views602 Downloads
21st Century Skills of Life Career Skills in Productive Learning of Vocational High School of Technical Expertise Engineering in Yogyakarta City
Original Research
This study aims to find out how 21st Century Life Career Skills Overview in Productive Learning of State Vocational Engineering Machining Program in Yogyakarta City. The object of this research is the 21st Century Life Skills Career in Productive Learning of SMK N 2 and SMK N 3 Machining Engineering Skills Program, while the research subjects are productive teachers and 12th grade students. Researchers use simple random sampling techniques to take samples of students, while techniques sampling is saturated in taking samples on productive teachers. This research was a quantitative descriptive study. Data collection techniques used in this study were packaged in the form of questionnaire guidelines, observation and documentation. Data analysis technique used by researchers is quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis techniques with a range of percentages. The results of this study indicated that 21st Century LCS at the State Vocational School in the engineering engineering program in the city of Yogyakarta in general illustrate the already good application of productive PBM subject teaching theory and practice. The percentage results through the source of student responses obtained by 66.87 percent while the source of teacher responses gained by 61.57 percent, which explains the results of the 21st Century Life Career Skills in the productive learning process of SMK N machining engineering expertise program in the city of Yogyakarta is good (in terms of teachers and students).
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 480-484. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-5
Pub. Date: July 08, 2020
748 Views659 Downloads
Project Based Learning in General Chemistry to Develop the Problem-Solving and Creativity
Original Research
Project Based Learning is one of the modern learning methods. However, at present there are not many project-based learning materials to develop problem-solving and creative capabilities for students of technical universities in Vietnam. Therefore, the research and application of project-based learning through the general chemistry module to develop problem-solving and creative capacity for students is very necessary. This article will be introduced the general chemistry course under the project based learning method to develop problem-solving and creative capacity for technical university students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 475-479. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-4
Pub. Date: July 08, 2020
665 Views532 Downloads
Challenges of International Ranking of Egyptian Universities from the Academicians’ Perspective
Original Research
The purpose of the current study is to identify the challenges of international ranking of Egyptian universities as perceived by university academicians, and analyze the significant differences among the participants’ responses based on their gender, position title, specialization, and experience. A 28 items survey covered the four areas of challenges of university rankings was used. A sample of 325 academicians in eleven Egyptian state universities was surveyed. Responses received only from 247 academicians, representing a response rate of 76 percent. The responses indicated that the most ranking challenges for Egyptian universities ascending by means were: ‘Faculty Challenges’, ‘Research Challenges’, ‘Institution Challenges’, and ‘Quality Challenges’, all of these challenges were in high level. There were no significant differences at the 0.05 level among the university academicians related to their gender, position title, specialization, and experience.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 465-474. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-3
Pub. Date: July 08, 2020
458 Views424 Downloads2 Likes
E-Learning During the Period of Pandemic (COVID-19) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Study
Original Research
E-learning is Information Technology (IT) supported virtual education system. It has emerged as a dominant channel of learning. The value of e-learning in education has led to a substantial development of online courses. This study plans to commence with the notion of e-learning, and talk about its need and span in education. There is a special focus on how e-learning can solve the disruptions in education sector due to the pandemic (COVID-19). A survey was performed to verify teachers’ preference towards diverse features of e-learning. The research results show that the majority of the teachers held positive opinion towards e-learning.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 457-464. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-2
Pub. Date: July 05, 2020
1257 Views812 Downloads
Contributions of Madrasah Education Program to Counter Violent Extremism
Original Research
This paper assessed the perceptions of the Arabic teachers (Asatidz) and some narratives of the School Heads on the contributions of the Madrasah Education Program (MEP) as Counter Violent Extremism (CVE). A survey was administered to a 313 Asatidz throughout the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and two sessions of the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) for the school heads were conducted. The result revealed that the perceptions of Asatidz on the MEP contributions to CVE are significantly different according to the division’s office and ethnicity but not significant on gender and highest educational attainment of the Asatidz. Other factors also identified by the Asatidz and how it contributes to CVE as discussed by the school heads were also provided.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(7), 450-456. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-7-1
Pub. Date: July 05, 2020
591 Views371 Downloads