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Volume 8, Issue 5

Learning Strategies Employed in Vocational Education Training on Integration of Prisoners into the Society
Original Research
Implementation of Vocational Education and Training (VET) within Prison institutions is dependent on several factors. One of the key drivers for successful implementation of VET is the learning strategies employed. Researches indicate that most incarcerated individuals have low academic standings within society. As such, approaches in learning have to conform to the trainees’ needs and education standards. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of learning strategies used in VET in Kenyan Prisons with a specific case study of Shimo La Tewa Maximum Security Prison and Shimo La Tewa Medium Security Prison. A descriptive research design was adopted to integrate different components of the research and questionnaire instruments were used for data collection. A Predictive Analytic Software (PASW) was used for data analysis where quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive, frequencies and percentages. A regression model was fitted to establish the relationship between prisoners’ integration back into the society and the learning strategies used in VET implementation in prison. The study findings indicated that there is a direct association between learning strategies used in VET implementation and integration back into the society with a regression model significance at (p<0.05) and (R=57%). The specific learning strategies investigated were behavioral and cognitive learning; both were found to be generally applicable among the inmates yet in terms of specific methods, the study found the level of agreeability varying. In conclusion, the study determined that there is need to enhance the capacity of learners by adopting appropriate strategies that impart skills and enhance the trainee confidence to gain formal employment. This way, the chances of re-offense is greatly reduced by appropriate training methods.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 353-359. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-20
Pub. Date: May 28, 2020
786 Views318 Downloads
Job Stress as a Sociological Predictor Teachers’ Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria
Original Research
The study investigated teacher's job stress as a psychological predictor of senior secondary school teachers' effectiveness in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive survey design. One hundred and sixty-eight participants (principals and teachers) were drawn from the sampled schools. Two self-designed instruments namely: Teachers' Job Stress Scale (TJSS) and Principals' Assessment of Teachers Instrument (PATEI) were duly validated and tested for reliability were used to obtain information from the participants. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Regression and t-test). The study revealed that teacher's effectiveness was poor and job stress low. There was negative and no significant relationship between teachers' job stress and effectiveness. Thus, increase in stress may not lead to increase in teaching effectiveness. There was also no gender difference in job effectiveness and stress among teachers. It is recommended that; stressing conditions be addressed and necessary palliatives be made available to relieve the teacher and thus improve overall teaching effectiveness.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 347-352. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-19
Pub. Date: May 28, 2020
661 Views254 Downloads
Developing the Ability to Apply Knowledge and Skills for Students under Stem Education
Original Research
STEM education is becoming a trend in many countries, including Vietnam. In the general education program, reduce the content of academic theoretical knowledge, instead of knowledge associated with reality and life, while emphasizing STEM education to meet the requirements of the 4.0 technology revolution. The article presents an overview of STEM; STEM-oriented teaching; Research the status and solutions for STEM activities in high school of Vietnam. From there, design the topic of Producing vinegar from sugar and fruit in teaching Carbohydrate chapter-Chemistry 12 under STEM orientation, to develop the ability to apply knowledge and skills to students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 340-346. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-18
Pub. Date: May 28, 2020
974 Views405 Downloads
Developing the Capability to Apply Chemical Knowledge to Practice through Study Nitrogen and Nitrogen Fertilizer Topics
Original Research
Currently, learning topics are considered as effective models for innovative methods of teaching learning - oriented capacity development for students. In this article, the author preferred the concept of teaching the subject, the process of developing teaching topics include five steps, investigate the status of capacity development use knowledge of chemistry to practical for students under learn theme in some high schools, building assessment tool capacity to apply knowledge, the structure of the capacity to manipulate knowledge, from which we designed the topic illustrating nitrogen and nitrogen fertilizer. Conduct pedagogical experiments and evaluate the effectiveness of applying the knowledge of Nitrogen and nitrogen fertilizer topics to develop students' capacity.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 332-339. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-17
Pub. Date: May 21, 2020
898 Views436 Downloads
Personality Traits and Thinking Styles: A Case Study of Arab Teachers as Members of a Minority in Israel
Original Research
This exploratory study examines the connection between personality traits and thinking styles among Arab teachers, as members of a minority, in the Arab education system in Israel. Teachers play a critical role in developing their students’ skills, as well as their perspectives, conceptions, and personality traits. Teachers’ own personality traits and thinking styles play an important role and are reflected in their professional performance as educators. The Arab minority in Israel is undergoing rapid processes of change on the social, economic, political, and cultural levels, and its members live in a society considered a modern one (with clear traditional characteristics). Nevertheless, no studies have been carried out which examine the relationship between personality traits and thinking styles among minority teachers in the Arab school system in Israel. In light of this, there is great importance in examining this subject and investigating the connections between personality traits and thinking styles among Arab teachers in the Arab education system in Israel. A total of 205 Arab teachers participated in this study. Descriptive statistics and calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient were used through the statistical analysis program SPSS. The research findings show a positive relationship between personality traits and thinking styles among teachers.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 325-331. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-16
Pub. Date: May 21, 2020
722 Views308 Downloads
Varied Intervention Models: Its Effect on Students’ Retention Score
Original Research
The study used a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. The experimental groups were exposed to three intervention models: Differentiated Intervention Model, Re-teaching Intervention Model, Modularized Intervention Model. Questions in posttest and retention were all multiple choice. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, ANCOVA Unequal n’s. The analysis of the data revealed that those who were exposed to differentiated intervention model retained more mathematical concepts compared to those exposed to re-teaching model but is as good as those students exposed to modularized model. Furthermore, retention of students exposed to re-teaching have comparable retention of those who underwent modularized model. The researchers recommend that mathematics teachers may employ any of the three models but preferably used differentiated model to improve students’ retention in mathematics. Modules may be used as intervention to help students increased performance since it only need teacher’s presence as consultant.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 321-324. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-15
Pub. Date: May 21, 2020
897 Views451 Downloads
SESEMAT In-service Pedagogical Strategies and Students’ Achievement in Science at Ordinary Level in Tororo SESEMAT Region
Original Research
Across the globe, nations have put in place interventions to boost learners’ achievement in science at various levels because science plays a key role in development. In Uganda, secondary science and mathematics teachers (SESEMAT) program is one of the major interventions set up to improve students’ academic performance and their attitude towards science. This study aimed to establish whether implementation of SESEMAT in-service pedagogical strategies has resulted in improved student achievement in science at secondary schools in Tororo Region. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a probability sample of 380 senior four students; and a non-probability sample of 20 head teachers, 12 teachers. The results revealed that SESEMAT strategies were being implemented at a moderate level (M = 19.88, SD = 4.49). SARB was by far the most implemented strategy while lesson study was the least. Student achievement was high (M = 37.96, SD = 5.70) while the strategies greatly enhanced teachers’ knowledge and practices (M = 35, SD = 5.40). The indirect effects of teachers’ classroom practices on implementation of SESEMAT strategies significantly improved students’ achievement in science (z = .16, p < .01, k2 = .28). In conclusion, the implementation of SESEMAT strategies enhanced teachers’ knowledge and classroom practices, boosting student achievement in science in terms of attitude change, skills acquisition, and daily life application. However, the level of academic performance was still low. The study recommends improved monitoring of the implementation of SESEMAT strategies in addition to SESEMAT trainers helping the science teachers to intensify the use of interactive strategies to enhance learners’ understanding of the subject matter.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 309-320. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-14
Pub. Date: May 21, 2020
824 Views325 Downloads
Argumentative Discourse-centered Classroom to Hone Students’ Mathematical Comprehension and Confidence
Original Research
The study determined the effect of argumentative discourse-centered classroom on the participants’ mathematical comprehension and self-confidence. It used a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental control group design. The experimental group was exposed to Argumentative Discourse-centered Classroom model while the control group was exposed to DepEd 4A’s model. Two research instruments were used: concept mapping to assess mathematics comprehension and confidence self-test. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and ANCOVA Equal n’s. The analysis revealed that the scores of those who were exposed to Argumentative Discourse-centered Classroom model are comparable to those exposed to DepEd 4A’s model in terms of mathematical comprehension and confidence. The researchers recommend that mathematics teachers may use Argumentative Discourse-centered Classroom model not only in Mathematics but also in other Mathematics related subjects to enable students experience how to express their own ideas with their classmates to exhibit their conceptual understanding and enhance oral communication skills.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 304-308. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-13
Pub. Date: May 21, 2020
784 Views347 Downloads
Composition and Practices of Secondary School Boards of Management: Lessons from Kenya
Review Article
Research provides evidence that school management is the second most important factor that influences students’ achievement after teaching quality. The management sets the conditions under which teachers work. In Kenya, the composition and the responsibilities of secondary school Boards of Management (BOMs) is enacted in the Basic Education Act of 2013. This article analyses the composition and practices of the BOMs based on recent researches. It focuses on the BOM members’ training, skills and competence and performance of their responsibilities. The paper is a theoretical desk-top review of literature on composition and practice school management in Kenya. The findings show that, in some of the school boards, there is blatant breach of guidelines. For instance, some of the BOM members had primary school education as their highest academic qualification against policy. Further, findings indicate that training of the BOM members is not given a priority as required by policy. It is recommended that composition of the board must strictly adhere to government policies. It is also recommended that there is need to train BOM members on policy interpretation, strategy formulation and financial management for them to ably manage schools. This review is important to education theorists and practitioners, and other stakeholders in the field of education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 299-303. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-12
Pub. Date: May 19, 2020
970 Views295 Downloads
Differences in the Mathematical Connection Capabilities of Students Taught by Using Guided Discovery Learning and Problem Based Learning Models Assisted by Autograph Viewed from Students' Numerical Ability
Original Research
This study aims to determine (1) whether the mathematical connection ability of students taught with Autograph-assisted Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) models is higher than students taught with Autograph-assisted Problem Based Learning (PBL) models, (2) whether there is interaction between the Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) model and the Problem Based Learning (PBL) model with numerical ability on students' mathematical connection abilities. This type of research is quasi-experimental research with a population of all students of class XI Pancur Batu Private High School Methodist. This study uses two-way ANAVA. Then proceed with the Scheffe test to see whether the two groups are significantly different. Based on the statistical calculation of the Scheffe test and confirmed with SPSS, it can be concluded that (1) The ability of students' mathematical connections taught by Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) assisted by Autograph Software is higher than that of students taught with Problem Based Learning (PBL) assisted by Autograph Software, (2) There is an interaction between the learning model with numerical ability on the ability of students' mathematical connections.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 293-298. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-11
Pub. Date: May 19, 2020
913 Views476 Downloads
Using the Competency Framework According to Employment Position to Assess the Competence of University Specialists
Original Research
The paper has built a competency framework of university specialists according to employment position, including 6 basic competencies: Academic and professional competence; Advisory capacity; Information literacy competence; Implementation capacity; Capacity for teamwork; Informatics and foreign languages competence. From there, this framework is used to assess the competence of specialists at Vinh University, as a basis for recruitment, employment and training specialists of the university.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 286-292. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-10
Pub. Date: May 19, 2020
804 Views363 Downloads
Study Habits and Academic Achievement: A Case Study of Secondary School Science Students in the Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria
Case Study
The pattern of behaviour adopted by a student in his/her study is his/her study habits, which reveals his/her personality. Study habits serve as the vehicle of learning and may be seen as both means and ends to learning. This study, thus, investigated the study habits of secondary school science students in the Jalingo metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria. The study which was guided by three research questions, employed a descriptive correlational research design. The sample of the study is made up of 199 students selected from 5 secondary schools through simple random sampling. Data for the study were generated through a questionnaire, tagged “Science Students’ Study Habit Questionnaire”. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, mean, and product-moment coefficient of correlation were used for data analysis. The study revealed that the secondary school science students in the Jalingo metropolis have poor study habits and weak academic performance. The study also found a strong positive, high and significant correlation between study habits and academic performance of secondary school science students. It is thus recommended that teachers, parents, guardians and the school management should collaboratively guide students on how to develop good study habits.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 282-285. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-9
Pub. Date: May 19, 2020
774 Views341 Downloads
Nominative Features of Weapon Terms in English
Original Research
In Vietnam, vocabulary in general and scientific terms in particular have been attracting much attention from researchers in order to learn about semantics of words in different fields. With the aim of having a better understanding of ways of naming weapons and semantics of weapon terms in English, this study will investigate nominative features which are employed to name weapons. The investigation shows that there are 20 distinctive nominative features used to name 907 weapon terms. Among them, the feature purpose/function is most employed with the frequency of 346 out of 907 terms (accounting for 38.14%), even much more frequently than the second most frequently used feature, component (133 out of 907, accounting for 14.66%). Whereas sound, state, quantity, time and color are features used just once. The results show that there are a number of ways to name weapons in English and that there is a tendency to make use of the features purpose/function, component, manoeuvrability, manner and assignment/equipment to give specific names to weapons. And it can be referred that they are the most helpful characteristics needed expressing in names of weapons or inventing for weapons. In addition, nominative features are usually minor elements preceding main ones in weapon terms’ structures and making a difference to other terms.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 278-281. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-8
Pub. Date: May 19, 2020
653 Views237 Downloads
Training Program on Special Education: A Development of Teachers’ Knowledge and Skills for the Proper Implementation of Inclusive Education
Original Research
The study was carried out with the main purpose of developing and enhancing the general education teachers’ knowledge and skills on special education for the proper implementation of inclusive education. This study was conducted on 25 teachers of Kinoguitan Central School. Data were gathered by using three (3) essential tools: demographic information survey, test and evaluation form. Collected data sets were tallied, summarized and analyzed through descriptive statistics. The results revealed that 100% of the teacher-participants have very limited knowledge and skills on special education; resulting in the negligence of proper implementation of Inclusive Education. However, with the use of the training program as an intervention, the teacher-participants’ knowledge and skills have developed. The scores of the teacher-participants on the posttest have significantly improved. From 11.96 as the average score in the pretest, it has increased to 27.88 in the posttest. Furthermore, the evaluation results of the training program obtained a total of 4.67, 4.56 and 4.60 ratings in the three (3) criteria: content & organization, trainer and instructional materials used respectively. The findings indicated that the teachers’ knowledge and skills on Special Education after the training have improved. Given the increased average score on the posttest as an indicator that a training program can help the teachers improve their knowledge and skills on special education for the proper implementation of inclusive education, it is necessary to encourage and support any training programs that would aid in bridging the gap between special education and inclusive education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 272-277. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-7
Pub. Date: May 13, 2020
886 Views407 Downloads
Mathematical Commognition: An Investigation Using Repetition with Complex Variations
Original Research
This study focused on the investigation on how repetition with simple and complex variations may influence students’ mathematical commognition (communication and cognition). The study was conducted at Bulua National High School of the Division of Cagayan de Oro City to Grade-10 students enrolled for school year 2019-2020. This study utilized the pretest-posttest control group design. A teacher-made test that measures students’ mathematical commognition comprises of 5-item open-ended questions with a rubric scale that measures mathematical cognition and mathematical communication skills was the main instrument used in the study. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the effects of simple and complex variations on students’ mathematical commognition. Results of the analysis revealed that students exposed to repetition with complex variations approach had significantly higher performance scores in terms of mathematical commognition as compared to its counterpart. The researchers then recommends that mathematics teachers may use this method as a basis for future studies for more insights on instruction that uses repetition with complex variations.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 267-271. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-6
Pub. Date: May 13, 2020
724 Views272 Downloads
Impact of Pre-primary Education on Children in Bangladesh: A Study on Government Primary Schools in Sylhet City
Original Research
Pre-primary education is one of the most important and basic stages of education. The study focuses on the impact of pre-primary education on children to ensure quality education, as part of the fulfillment of the commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) by 2030. This study has been conducted based on a social survey (n=60) in Bangladesh's Sylhet city by using explanatory and descriptive research methods. Results delineated that majority of the respondents consider that pre-primary education is important for children’s early age learning to compete in this changing world and ensure better communication for young children. But they also argued that in government schools, there is a lack of infrastructural facilities, funds, number of teachers, and teaching materials in proportion to students to provide lessons properly. So, the government and concerned authority should reduce problems and increase facilities for a good teaching environment at the pre-primary level.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 251-258. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-4
Pub. Date: May 10, 2020
946 Views277 Downloads
Parents’ Perceptions Towards the Importance of Preschool Education in Rwanda
Original Research
Preschool education is the very important for children's development. It is likely agreed that parents play a vital role in success of preschool education. Parents’ perceptions towards early childhood education are very useful for an effective, innovative and successful program. However, a very little is known about Rwanda. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating parents’ opinions on importance of preschool education. The semi structured interview was used to collect data both in Kigali city (to capture urban situation) and in eastern province (representing rural situation) while a qualitative approach was employed to provide extensively a deeper understanding of the respondents. Results show that 78% of all interviewees in rural area were not aware of preschool importance while in urban area parents were much concerned about their kids future. In Urban 95% of all respondents agree that preschool is very necessary. For a deeper understanding, the parents perceptions influencing factors were discussed. A strong association between perceptions level and parents socioeconomic status, education background, living area (rural/urban) was found. The study recommended awareness campaigns for parents around the country to the importance of preschool education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 242-250. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-3
Pub. Date: May 10, 2020
790 Views262 Downloads
Children of Color: Their Perception of the Coronavirus
Original Research
This is a cross-sectional, exploratory study that was conducted to explore how fourteen (14) children perceive the coronavirus. Electronic questionnaires were disseminated to the parents with a letter that conveyed specific instructions for administering the questionnaire to their child or children. The age range for the children were from 5 years-old to 9 years-old consisting of nine (9) boys and five (5) girls participating. All fourteen (14) subjects were middle-class children of color. The children answered ten (10) questions related to the coronavirus. Parents were instructed to ask their child each question and then for the parents to write each response to each question. Ten (10) questions were asked of the children. All fourteen (14) children knew why they were not allowed in school and the children articulated that the reason was because of the coronavirus. From the responses gleamed of the fourteen (14) children, it is clear their parents and families have developed resilience in their children. The children have indicated that they are very aware of the enduring nature coronavirus poses in the nation. They were aware of what their responsibilities, and they have adapted the knowledge they have been given to stop the disease.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 238-241. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-2
Pub. Date: May 10, 2020
969 Views392 Downloads
Utilizing Problem-Based and Project-Based Learning in Developing Students’ Communication and Collaboration Skills in Physics
Original Research
Education plays an essential part in the progress and development of a particular country. With the rapid economic and social changes resulting from technological advancement, it is indeed that globalization and internationalization of education are considered as challenges that every nation should uphold. This study aimed to utilize problem-based learning and project-based learning methods in developing students’ communication and collaboration skills in physics. This study used a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest non-equivalent research design. Two different sections were utilized as participants of the study; one intact class was assigned as the first experimental group (n=42) using problem-based learning and the other intact class as the second experimental group (n=36) utilizing project-based learning method. The communication and collaboration was measured using an open-ended questionnaire and was scored using a researcher-made rubric with a Krippendorff’s alpha of 0.97. Results revealed that significant improvement in communication and collaboration skills was shown in both teaching methods. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in students’ communication and collaboration skills as influenced by the two teaching methods. The absence of difference could imply that the two teaching methods improved the scores of students equally. Based on this finding, it is recommended to use the two teaching methods in other science subjects that require content development and mastery of 21st-century skills.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2020, 8(5), 232-237. DOI: 10.12691/education-8-5-1
Pub. Date: May 10, 2020
958 Views341 Downloads