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Volume 7, Issue 8

A Simulation Showing the Role of Central Limit Theorem in Handling Non-Normal Distributions
Original Research
This simulation employed a compiler which explains the role of central limit theorem in dealing with populations that are not normally distributed. A group of 10000-data-point populations were simulated according to five different kinds of distribution: uniform, platykurtic normal, positively-skewed exponential, negatively-skewed triangular, and bimodal. Three 500-data-point sampling distributions of sample sizes of 2, 10, and 30 were created from each population. All populations and sampling distributions were displayed in histograms for analysis along with their means and standard deviations. The results verified the principles of the central limit theorem and indicated that if the population is close to normality, a smaller sample size is needed so that the central limit theorem can take effect. But if the population is far from normality, a large sample size might be required. A proportion of population was proposed for a sample size based on the simulation results. Further studies and implications are discussed.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(8), 591-598. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-8-8
Pub. Date: August 23, 2019
9342 Views1384 Downloads22 Likes
Creating a 21st Century Skills Survey Instrument for High School Students
Original Research
This article describes the development of a 21st century skills instrument for high school students. The first round of development of the instrument was crafted from four rubrics created to assess communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity within project-based learning (PBL) activities. After an exploratory factor analysis, the pilot study results revealed multiple survey items loading across multiple factors requiring a revised instrument. The research team revised the instrument and added more items by using language from P21 standards documents. The revised 21st century skills instrument of 50 items was administered to 276 high school students participating in a STEM program. The final Exploratory Factor Analysis yielded a total of 30 survey items loaded across the four subscales with strong internal consistency within the constructs. This instrument can be used as a baseline and achievement measure for high school students’ 21st century skills.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(8), 583-590. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-8-7
Pub. Date: August 22, 2019
5641 Views1711 Downloads
A Focus Group Approach: Exploring the Feasibility of a Mandatory, No-Credit Programme of Daily Structured Physical Activity in Secondary Schools in Trinidad and Tobago
Original Research
This study explores a possible solution for the growing problem of obesity in teenage school children. It examines the feasibility of introducing, as a solution to the obesity problem, a mandatory, no-credit programme of daily structured physical activity (P.A.) into the secondary school curriculum at all levels. Qualitative methods were used to gain insights into the desirability and support for such a programme and the logistics of implementing it. In the first phase of the research a Focus Group discussion was held with six secondary school Physical Education (P.E.) teachers to examine their opinions on these aspects – desirability, support, and logistics for such a programme. This group also articulated their expectations for what support from P.E. teachers, the most likely school personnel to be responsible for such a course, they anticipated would be given to this type of daily structured physical activity programme in secondary schools. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted, one with a retired P.E Sports Officer, an Advocate who had been instrumental previously in helping to introduce the current ‘for-credit’ subject of Physical Education and Sport into the secondary school curriculum, and the other with two current curriculum officers in the Ministry of Education. Thematic Analysis was employed to extract and confirm themes and sub-themes from both the Focus Group and the semi-structured interviews. In this paper, for the Focus group, a consensus matrix is used to summarize the salient information, the level of agreement among the participants for a particular sentiment expressed by any one speaker in the group. Ten thematic areas, which broke down further into 17 sub-themes, were extracted from the Focus group discussion. Among these were the current general state of P.E./P.A. in schools, differences in structured versus unstructured P.A., the implications of launching a compulsory P.A. program, the roles of P.E., P.E. teachers, the government, and parents in fighting obesity in secondary school children, the success of old solutions, and possible new solutions. The Advocate provided important information on the challenges and barriers which existed at the time of the prior introduction of the formal examinable subject on Physical Education, including the belief that this subject had not lived up to expectations. The curriculum officers, on the other hand, provided technical details and advice on the necessary steps for implementation of the type of programme which is the basis of this study. All participants agreed that the formal, examination –assessed subject, Physical Education and Sport, introduced into Trinidad and Tobago’s secondary schools in 2003, had not enhanced the amount of student engagement in physical activity, even for those reading that subject. The participants were almost unanimous in their views that there was reason to be concerned about childhood and adolescent obesity in schools and that more physical activity was needed.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(8), 570-582. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-8-6
Pub. Date: August 21, 2019
3769 Views1186 Downloads
Assessing Vietnamese Language Proficiency Based on Vietnamese Language Competency Framework for Foreigners at Thai Nguyen University of Education
Original Research
Vietnamese Language Competency Framework for Foreigners was approved and released by Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training on 1st September 2015. The framework identifies basic elements for assessing Vietnamese language proficiency and developing a curriculum of Vietnamese language for foreigners. This paper reports a process of developing Vietnamese language tests based on the Vietnamese Language Competency Framework (VLCF) for foreigners at Thai Nguyen University of Education. It also suggests some recommendations on enhancing the quality of Vietnamese language assessment as well as the quality of training programs and training activities for teaching Vietnamese language for foreigners.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(8), 561-569. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-8-5
Pub. Date: August 16, 2019
3895 Views1060 Downloads1 Likes
Teaching Staff Professional Ethics and Quality of Educational Output in Federal Universities, South-South Zone of Nigeria
Original Research
The study examined the extent to which teaching staff professional ethics predict quality of educational output in federal universities, South-South Zone of Nigeria. Four research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The correlational research design was used for the study. The population comprised 6,305 teaching staff and 32,613 students. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 1,275 teaching staff and 3,021 students. Two instruments titled “Teaching Staff Professional Ethics Questionnaire (TSPEQ)”, and a documentary analysis checklist titled “Graduate Educational Output Checklist (GEOC)” were used for data collection. The reliability co-efficient of TSPEQ was determined using the Cronbach Alpha Analysis and a reliability index of 0.83 was obtained. Graph, coefficient of R value and R2were used to answer the research questions while the f-value of Simple Linear Regression Analysis was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that teaching staff professional ethics variables of professional competence, professional integrity and professional accountability significantly predicts quality of educational output in federal universities, South-South Zone of Nigeria. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended amongst others that, university management should ensure that professional ethics of teacher accountability is upheld by enforcing periodic self- appraisal by teachers, assessment by students and performance appraisal.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(8), 548-560. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-8-4
Pub. Date: August 13, 2019
3627 Views1182 Downloads2 Likes
Quality Assurance in Nigeria Certificate in Education Programme: Implication for Primary School Teachers in North Central Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria
Original Research
This study examines Quality Assurance in Nigeria Certificate in Nigeria programme: Implication for Primary school Teachers in North Central Zone of Nigeria. The study was carried out in five states of the North Central Geo-political zone of Nigeria. Descriptive survey designed was adopted for the study. Four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The sample of two hundred and fifty (250) academic and non-academic staff was draw from the population through random sampling technique from five Colleges of Education in the North Central zone. The instrument Quality Assurance Practice Questionaire (QAPQ) was used for data collection after been validated by three research experts and pilot test was conducted to ascertain its reliability. The reliability was obtained using Cronbach Alpha with index of 0.87. Inferential statistics of t-test was used to test the resraech hypotheses. The results revealed that the mean rating of Quality Assurance practice in Colleges of Education in North Central zone is significantly high with sample mean of 15.42 which is greater than the population of 13.06 at 0.05 alpha level of significance. It was recommended that Nigeria government through NCCE should ensure strict adhrence to all the quality assurance strategies by all Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(8), 542-547. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-8-3
Pub. Date: August 13, 2019
4491 Views1509 Downloads
Factors Associated with Child Sexual Abuse in Vietnam: A Qualitative Study
Original Research
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is one of the most widespread incidents which was reported over the world. This paper aims to explore perceptions of causes, forms, myths, context and perpetrators of CSA in Bac Kan, Vietnam. 15 in-depth interviews were conducted among adults including local authorities, parents, teachers, and neighbors of the victims to find out factors related to CSA and solutions to address this issue. Basing on that results, we suggest social work interventions and measures to prevent and tackle CSA.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(8), 537-541. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-8-2
Pub. Date: August 12, 2019
2498 Views825 Downloads1 Likes
The Effect of Tai (Team Assisted Individualization) Cooperative Learning Model and Expository Model with Open-Ended Approach to Mathematical Connection Ability Reviewed From Initial Mathematical Abilities
Original Research
This study aims to determine the effect of TAI (Team Assisted Individualization) cooperative learning models and expository learning models with an open-ended approach to mathematical connection skills. This research was conducted at Bendungan Hilir Elementar School 09 and 01 Pagi, Tanah Abang, Central Jakarta in class VI of the first semester of the school year 2018/2019 using cluster random sampling with a total sample of 52 students. Data retrieval was done through tests and analyzed using two-way Variance (ANOVA) analysis with treatment design by level 2 x 2. The results showed that: (1) the mathematical connection ability of students treated using the TAI (Team Assisted Individualization) type cooperative learning model is higher than the students taught using the expository learning model, (2) there is an interaction effect between the learning model and mathematical initial abilities on mathematical connection skills, (3) the mathematical connection ability of students treated using the TAI (Team Assisted Individualization) type of cooperative learning model is higher than students who are treated using the expository learning model for students who have high initial mathematical abilities, (4) the mathematical connection ability of students treated using the cooperative learning type TAI (Team Assisted Individualization) model is lower than students who are treated using the expository learning model for students who have low initial mathematical abilities.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(8), 530-536. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-8-1
Pub. Date: August 02, 2019
4344 Views1685 Downloads1 Likes