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Volume 7, Issue 12

An Elementary Method in Number Theory
Original Research
In order to apply the role of the analogues between integers and polynomials, in this paper we introduce a unified diagram to the Fermat's theorem, Mason's theorem, Davenport's theorem and some arithmetic conjectures. Further, we show some applications of this diagram in teaching and researching on arithmetic. By using this elementary method in number theory, we obtained some results for polynomials and holomorphic functions in case complex and p-adic.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 989-993. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-14
Pub. Date: December 30, 2019
1749 Views612 Downloads
Essential Professional Qualities and Skills of an Effective and Modern Teacher
Original Research
Identification of qualities and skills of an ideal teacher in the current modern world has been a significant concern across the globe. The reason for this assertion is that the education sector is typically associated with many advancements, such as the use of technology to educate the students. Besides, education holds a pivotal role in empowering students to be fit to handle the challenges of the world. Teachers play a significant role in empowering students. As a result, they should possess qualities and skills that will enable them to relate with the students and foster the development of social and technical skills among the students. The primary aim of this research is to identify the qualities and skills that are regarded as essential to a modern teacher. One of the key findings of this particular research is that the pedagogical knowledge, as well as the personal traits and beliefs of a teacher, are the essential factors to consider when identifying an ideal teacher. The quality of a teacher is critical in the sense that it is associated with the quality of education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 983-988. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-13
Pub. Date: December 27, 2019
2148 Views1033 Downloads
Towards a Web Application to Create Flowcharts for Supporting the Teaching-Learning Process of Structured Programming Courses
Original Research
Programming is an essential skill for students of undergraduate programs related to computer science or information technologies, because they are required to have the ability to generate algorithms that solve real problems, which are later implemented in a programming language. Flowcharts are diagrams that can be used to visualize algorithms, which are graphic representations of the processes that are involved in the algorithm; each process is represented with symbols, allowing the student a visual understanding of the solution for a given problem. This paper presents a web application to support the teaching-learning process of structured programming undergraduate courses, which allows the creation of flowcharts. The web application allows the teacher to create examples with their corresponding solutions, register exercises to be solved by students, which are provided with a work area to draw flowcharts by dragging and dropping elements.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 976-982. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-12
Pub. Date: December 26, 2019
2708 Views664 Downloads
European Identity and European Heritage: A Critical Approach of Greek, British and Spanish Geography Textbooks
Original Research
In this era of financial and migration crises that many European countries have been experiencing, together with a general feeling of dissatisfaction towards the European Union on the part of member states, questions about the formation of a shared European identity arise. This situation is aggravated by Europeans’ low regard for or, in some cases, negative feelings about European identity, and by the lack of knowledge about European cultural heritage. Education plays a significant role in the shaping of identities – including a European one, while it also is responsible for preparing students, the citizens of tomorrow, for making decisions on a wide range of issues. Geography, which is a discipline that affects the construction of identity, is a useful perspective for studying the concepts of heritage and identities in the educational curriculum. This study was undertaken as a part of CοHERE, a project funded through Horizon 2020, which investigates – both comparatively and in depth – a carefully selected range of European territories and realities. Using qualitative descriptive analysis, a method for identifying, analysing and reporting patterns (themes) within data, we examined the relationship of education to the construction of a European identity by focusing on the extent to which European cultural heritage is recorded in textbooks in Greece, the United Kingdom, and Spain. Inferences are drawn on the way that these two concepts are presented in the textbooks, as well as the extent to which the key themes of Geography address these concepts. The findings of the study and their implications are discussed.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 966-975. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-11
Pub. Date: December 25, 2019
2158 Views707 Downloads1 Likes
The Development Instrument Test of PISA and Student Worksheet (LKPD) with Shape and Space Content Using RME Approach to Improve the Mathematic Representation Ability of High School Students
Original Research
The purpose of this study was to produce Student Worksheet (Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik / LKPD) and PISA-based test instruments that were valid, practical, effective and able to improve students mathematical representation abilities. This type of research was the Tessmer model development research. The trials in this study were conducted in class X-Science 3 and X-Science 4 of SMA Negeri 1 Dolok Batu Nanggar. From the results of trial I and trial II obtained: (1) LKPD and PISA-based test instruments on the developed RME model were valid and practical, but have not met effective criteria namely: a) classical student completeness of more than 85%; b) achievement of learning objectives of more than 75% for each item; c) students who gave a positive response of more than 80%; and d) achievement of learning time was the same as regular learning time; and (2) there was an increase in the average mathematical representation ability of students in the first trial was 0.4 with moderate and in the second trial was 0.6 in the medium category.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 957-965. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-10
Pub. Date: December 22, 2019
2902 Views792 Downloads
Influence of School Managers’ Training on Disaster Risk Management in Public Secondary Schools within Nairobi City County Kenya
Original Research
Disaster risks are very common occurrences within Kenyan secondary schools. Most disasters afflicting Nairobi City schools of the public category include fire outbreaks, student unrest, terror threats and strikes which have caused harm to humans and property in a number of incidences. Nevertheless, the concept of disaster risk management in secondary schools in Nairobi has so far not attracted much attention of researchers. The study objects were: to investigate school managers’ training mode on DRM, how the training had assisted the school managers in DRM, and the influence of school managers’ training on DRM. Emergent Norm theory and Risk Management theory were used to give guidance to the study. The study was a mixed methodology research employing concurrent triangulation design. The population comprised 282 individuals and sample size of 167 respondents determined according to Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. Data was collected through questionnaires and observation checklists for principals, HODs, BOM and interview guides for sub QASOs. Tools were pre-tested among 10% of the target sample, not part of part of the actual study. Instrument consistency was determined through Pearson product Moment correlation where a correlation coefficient of 0.75 was considered acceptable. Expert judgment by supervisors and peer reviewers was used to test the instruments for validity. Instrument dependability was established by employing overlapping procedures including telephone and face to face interviews during field work. Concurrent triangulation was employed for data credibility. Instrument reliability was calculated using Chronbach’s Alpha. Quantitative statistics was descriptively evaluated and shown in figures and tables. Significance of confidence at 95% level was tested using inferential statistics. Qualitative data was analysed thematically and results presented in tables. Conclusions are anticipated to benefit School managers, Teachers’ Service commission, Parents, Principals, the Ministry of Education, Nairobi County. All ethical issues pertaining to research were observed. The study findings are that: School managers were not trained on management of disaster risks. The school managers were trained on school safety through: Red Cross, In-service and Work-shop programs. 71.3% of school managers said that DRM was negatively influenced by the training on disaster risk management. The researcher concludes as: School managers in public schools in Nairobi City are not trained on disaster risk management. 65% have been trained on school safety. School managers are not prepared to manage disaster risk because they lack appropriate training. The recommendations are that: The Government of Kenya should develop a policy for disaster risk management, a Curriculum on management of risks caused by disaster and train school managers, teachers, students and communities on management of disaster risk.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 948-956. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-9
Pub. Date: December 21, 2019
2046 Views593 Downloads
Constraints Facing Successful Implementation of the Competency-Based Curriculum in Kenya
Original Research
Kenya is in the process of shifting from content-based to competency-based system of education. Teachers are likely to face challenges when implementing a new curriculum especially in relation to the content and subject demarcations, the underlying assumptions, goals, teaching approaches and assessment methods. In this regard, this study was conducted to investigate the constraints likely to face successful implementation of the competency based curriculum in Machakos County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design targeting all the 8,320 teachers in all the 828 public primary schools in Machakos County, Kenya. Stratified random sampling was used to select 342 teachers in charge of grades one to three where competency based curriculum was being implemented. A questionnaire and an observation checklist were used as tools for data collection. The study established that teachers were not fully prepared for the implementation of new curriculum; infrastructures available in schools were not adequate for successful implementation of competency based curriculum; the government hurriedly implemented CBC in schools without first addressing challenges such as understaffing, inadequacy of teaching and learning material and unfriendly teaching and learning environment. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should invest more on teacher training and involve teachers in curriculum change process to create a positive attitude among them for successful implementation of Competency Based Curriculum.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 943-947. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-8
Pub. Date: December 20, 2019
3371 Views750 Downloads
The Effect of Problem Solving Models against Mathematical Connection Ability and Self Efficacy Students' in SMP Negeri 5 Tebing Tinggi
Original Research
This study aims to determine the effect of problem solving models on the ability of mathematical connections and self-efficacy. This type of research is a quasi-experimental study. The instrument used consisted of tests of mathematical connection ability, self-efficacy questionnaires, student activity sheets, and mathematical initial abilities. The population of this study was students in grades VII-1 and VII-2 in SMP Negeri 5 Tebing Tinggi. The instrument of this research was in the form of a mathematical connection ability test of 4 items in the description and self-efficacy questionnaire in students of 23 statements with 4 alternative answers. It can be seen that the Fcount value is 51.76 and the significance value α = 0.000. So the level of significance value <0.050 (sig. <0.050) then Hn is rejected and H1 is accepted. However, if the significance> 0.050 (sig.> 0.050) then Hn is accepted and H1 is rejected. Problem solving model is smaller than α = 0.05 then Hn is rejected and Ha is accepted. So that there is an influence of problem solving models on students' mathematical connection abilities accepted. obtained a value of Fn (B) of 19.81, if the value of Fn(B) is confirmed to the value of F table at α = 5%, then Fn (B) is greater than F table (19.81> 4.006). It was concluded that enough evidence to reject Hn. This means that there is an influence of the learning approach on students' mathematical self-efficacy. Furthermore, a Fn(A) value of 11,798 is obtained, if this Fn (A) value is confirmed to the value of Ftable at α = 5%, then Fn(A) is greater than Ftable (11,798> 4,006). It was concluded that enough evidence to reject Hn. This means that there is an influence of KAM on students' mathematical self-efficacy. Based on the calculation results obtained that the significance value of KAM * Learning towards students' mathematical connection ability is equal to 0.4280, greater than the predetermined significance level, that is, 0.05 (0.4280> 0.05), which means that is accept Hn. In other words there is no significant interaction between the learning model and the initial mathematical ability of students' mathematical connection abilities. Likewise with student self-efficacy, the results of data analysis obtained for the KAM significance value * Learning towards students' self-efficacy is 0.4801, greater than 0.05 (0, 4801> 0.05), so Hn is accepted which it means that there is no significant interaction between learning models and mathematical initial abilities of students' self-efficacy.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 939-942. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-7
Pub. Date: December 18, 2019
2427 Views809 Downloads
Challenges Facing English Language Saudi Students When Studying Literature Courses in English Language Programs at the Undergraduate Level: Problems and Recommendations
Original Research
The teaching of English as a foreign language in Saudi Arabia has always focused on the communicative and linguistic rather than the cultural functions of the language [1]. In this study, the challenges faced by the English foreign language Saudi students studying literature courses at the undergraduate level at two higher education institutions; the University of Mustaqbal and Jubail University College in Saudi Arabia. This is a collaborate research study done at two different universities of Saudi Arabia. The research emphasizes on the problems of dealing with English literature for the students at the undergraduate level. Qualitative research design was adapted, primarily exploratory to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and elucidation. Purposive sampling technique was used. The focus of the study was on the major barriers and problems that Saudi students face while learning English literature. It proposes remedial measures for the said barriers and problems.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 930-938. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-6
Pub. Date: December 15, 2019
2161 Views631 Downloads
Learning Approach and Soft-skills Contribution toward Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Skill of Junior High School Students
Original Research
Life skills such as social skill and emotional quotient recognized as soft-skills. Indonesian students soft-skills such as generous and helpful tends to decrease time to time which considered to threat nation character. Meanwhile, many researchers reported soft-skills is a dominant factor to determine one successfulness in life. Moreover, many hypothesize that it contributes much on mathematical higher-order thinking skills (MHOTS). Therefore, this research took place to help students keep and enhance their aspects of soft-skills. This quasi-experiment research applied constructivism-based learning at a public junior high school. Instruments used to collect data on soft-skills were questionnaire, interview, and observation. An essay test was administered to get data on students MHOTS. The data then analyzed using t-test and variance analysis. The findings showed that: (1) Learning approach contribute significantly toward student mathematical high order thinking skills as much as 57.4%. Constructivism learning approach gives more influence to the students student mathematical high order thinking skills than direct instruction, (2) Student soft-skills contributed only 29.9 % (categorize low) toward mathematical high order thinking skills. However, student soft-skills in the guided discovery classroom is better than its counterpart in the direct instruction classroom, (3) Learning approach and soft-skills simultaneously influence significantly toward student mathematical high order thinking skills. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers not only focus on the cognitive development of students but must care about the development of affective aspects as well.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 925-929. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-5
Pub. Date: December 09, 2019
2200 Views728 Downloads
Metacognitive Level Analysis of High School Students in Mathematical Problem-Solving Skill
Original Research
This study aims to analyze: the level of students’ metacognition in mathematical problem-solving skills. The subjects of this study were students of grade X at Private Madrasah Aliyah Al - Asy'ariyah Medan Krio. The objects of this research were students’ metacognition level and mathematical problem-solving skills. The results showed that: the level of students’ metacognition in mathematical problem-solving skills of 32 students were: (1) Students with high levels of problem-solving skills were at the level of metacognitive strategy use; (2) Students with the medium level of problem-solving skills were at the level of metacognitive aware use; (3) Students with low levels of problem-solving skills were at the level of metacognitive tacit use.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 919-924. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-4
Pub. Date: December 05, 2019
3504 Views1005 Downloads
Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers in Najran: Opportunities and Challenges
Original Research
The present study aimed to identify the main opportunities with which professional development programs provide mathematics teachers at the Education Directorate at Najran. It also aimed to determine the most important challenges these teachers usually face at schools. Therefore, a four- aspect questionnaire to investigate the teachers' viewpoint about classroom teaching practices, resources of professional development, obstacles of professional development, in addition to opportunities and challenges of professional development programs was developed. Then it was delivered to (115) participants among which were (42) males and (73) females. They were all teaching mathematics at the three education stages at public schools at Najran in the academic year 2018/ 2019. The descriptive analytical approach was used to interpret collected data. Results indicated that professional development programs were very effective in improving mathematics teacher' classroom teaching practices, making them more aware of their professional development resources and more capable in distinguishing the main obstacles that hinder their profession. Findings also showed that there were significant differences between participants' responses due to gender in favor of females. Moreover, there were significant differences due to the educational stage in favor of the intermediate and secondary stages. There were also significant differences due to the number of programs teachers received in favor of more than five development programs. Nevertheless, there were no differences due to the teaching experience. Results also showed that the big increase in student's numbers inside classrooms, the length of the teaching material, the frequent absence of students, and the difficulty to follow up the latest in his area of specialty were the most important challenges facing mathematics teachers. Opportunities provided by professional development programs were not highly available because most of the required services mainly health ones did not exist.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 907-918. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-3
Pub. Date: December 05, 2019
2899 Views849 Downloads
The Impact of Integrating Computer Simulations and Videos on Senior Secondary School Learners’ Performance Achievement on Atomic Physics and Radioactivity Concepts
Original Research
This study explored the impact of integrating computer simulations and videos in addition to lecture discussions on learner’s understanding of concepts on atomic physics and radioactivity. The study was a randomly assigned pre-test post-test counter balanced quasi-experimental design involving two grade 11 classes at a secondary school located in Kitwe on the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. One class was assigned to be the experimental group while the other was made the comparison group for six lessons. Post-test results were analysed following teaching using computer simulations, video and lecture method (experimental group) and using videos only and lecture method (comparison group). In the second half the groups were swapped for purposes of counterbalancing. Post-tests on achievement were analysed yielding a comparison of the groups under the different treatments. Results indicated that the mean of the experimental group (Epost-test = 66.60%) was significantly higher than the mean of the comparison group (C post-test= 45.68%) (t = 4.179; df, 37; p = .000; α = .05). The results indicated a substantial effect size by Cohen's d of 1.34. Overall, the results suggest that integrating computer simulations and videos into teaching atomic physics and radioactivity significantly enhances learners' performance.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 901-906. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-2
Pub. Date: December 05, 2019
2593 Views898 Downloads1 Likes
Developing Learning Devices Based on GeoGebra Assisted Discovery Learning with SAVI Approach to Improve Motivation and Mathematical Communication of Senior High School Students MTs Aisyiyah
Original Research
This study aims to: 1) Obtain discovery-based learning with SAVI approach assisted by GeoGebra (DLSG) that meet validity, practicality, and effectiveness criteria; (2) Describe the improvement of mathematical communication skills (MCS) of the students taught through DLSG; (3) Describe learning motivation of the students taught through DLSG. This research is a development research conducted in two stages, the first stage is developing a DLSG based learning device, the second stage is implementing a DLSG based learning device at grade IX senior high school students MTs Aisyiyah Medan. The learning devices produced from this research are: Learning Implementation Plan (LIP), Teacher's Book (TB), Student's Book (SB), Student Worksheet (SW) and MCS test. The results of the research are: (1) the DLSG-based learning devices developed have met the validity, practicality, and effectiveness criteria; (2) there is the improvement in MCS of the students taught through DLSG. The average MCS score in trials I and II were 81.82 and 94.12; (3) there is the improvement in learning motivation of the students taught through DLSG, the motivation score increased from 85.97 to 86.20.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(12), 893-900. DOI: 10.12691/education-7-12-1
Pub. Date: December 02, 2019
3199 Views1065 Downloads1 Likes