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Volume 6, Issue 9

Diversity and Multicultural Education: Racism, Bilingualism, Disabilities and LGBTQ Students
Review Article
Diversity and multicultural education have a serious impact on the student¡¯s behavior and success. Embracing diversity is a challenging task for many educators. In this paper, we discuss diversity issues and professional standards for educational leaders that should be adopted to promote individualism, equity, and student engagement. Discussed diversity-related issues are: (1) Racism: Racial incidents towards black race in Oklahoma State University and towards indigenous rugby players in Australian sports were analyzed to have inclusive and racism-free environments through positive relations and multicultural reform; (2) Bilingualism: Ideas from both advocates and criticizers of linguistic diversity were evaluated to reach the end result that bilingual education programs must be adopted to develop students understanding and success; (3) LGBTQ students: Schools should enforce inclusions and support GSA clubs; (4) Disabilities: Accommodations for deaf and/or hard-of-hearing students must be provided for use in instruction for English-language learners. Lastly, strategies to embrace diversity like effective communication, equality and engagement with others were proposed to overcome challenges that face educators in creating a diverse and inclusive campus.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1333-1337. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-14
Pub. Date: October 10, 2018
3665 Views1382 Downloads
Assessing Major Adjustment Problems of First Year Students in Ethiopia, Wolaita Sodo University
Original Research
The main objective of the study was to assess the adjustment problems and to determine the relationship between the overall campus adjustment and academic achievement of first year students at wolaita Sodo University. The population was 1873 first year students accepted to the university in regular programme in the year 2012/13. Among these, 250 (175 male and 75 female) students were selected using multi-stage sampling technique and involved in the study. The data were collected using questionnaires and interview guidelines. The questionnaires were adapted from the already existing tools, but the interview guide was locally developed based on literature in the area. For analysis, both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. The qualitative data depicted that the students were challenged by adjustment problems from four basic dimensions. These adjustment problem dimensions were academic, social, personal-emotional and institutional attachment dimensions. Quantitative analysis findings showed that students’ overall campus adjustment was at moderate level and male students were found to be better adjusted compared to female students. According to the results of the study there was statistically significant positive relationship between students’ adjustment and their academic achievement. Academic adjustment became the first predictor of the students’ academic performance and followed by the personal-emotional adjustment.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1326-1332. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-13
Pub. Date: October 09, 2018
7427 Views3544 Downloads
A Case Study on Pre-service Science Teachers’ Assessment of Some Teaching Science Courses at the Faculty of Education, Lebanese University
Original Research
The present case study examined pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards 6 courses taught in 3rd till 6thsemesters at the Lebanese University, the Faculty of Education, during the academic year 2016-2017. They also assessed science teaching courses that are essential for preparing future teachers to teach science to primary and elementary pupils. These courses were: Action Research I and II in Teaching Science, New trends in Teaching Science, Teaching Science I and II. All of those courses are taken by pre-service teachers majoring in elementary science education, and Teaching Science for Early Childhood Education, recently referred to as primary education. Qualitative and Quantitative Data were gathered from a) a survey questionnaire consisting of 16 items; some were of Likert scale type that aimed at collecting students’ opinions on courses, in terms of teaching, assessment and class environment. The sample consisted of 67 pre-service teachers, who filled 105 questionnaires and b) pre-service science and mathematics teachers’ reflections (N=35) in their last semester in Science and Mathematics, in order to know more about their opinions of teaching science courses for teacher preparation at the Faculty of Education, their skills gained and for improving the present curriculum of science education. Pre-service teachers were satisfied with science teaching courses and they have admitted that they gained a good pedagogical content knowledge, such as, lesson planning, use of various teaching and assessment strategies, and how to do action research in a science class.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1318-1325. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-12
Pub. Date: October 07, 2018
4114 Views1265 Downloads
The Latest Characteristics of Mathematics Education Reform of Compulsory Education Stage in China
Original Research
The mathematics reform of basic education in China has attracted worldwide attention. Based on the new edition of mathematics curriculum standards of compulsory education stage issued by the Ministry of education in 2011, this paper illustrates the overall framework of China's basic mathematics education reform, analyzes the characteristics of the curriculum objectives, curriculum implementation, and teaching suggestions, especially the part about the mathematics problem-solving. The aim of this study is to promote a comprehensive understanding of mathematics education researchers to the new round of mathematics education reform in China and to enhance the deep communication between Chinese mathematics education and the world mathematics education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1312-1317. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-11
Pub. Date: September 28, 2018
4112 Views1274 Downloads
Improving the Self-Assessment Skill for Students of History Education in Vietnam to Adapt Vietnamese Teaching Standards
Original Research
The self-assessment skill is considered as basic vocational competence, defined in Vietnamese Teaching Standards. Self-assessment refers to a process of learners desiring to look back on their studies, identifying their strengths and weaknesses to strive higher results and proving personal competency. This research focuses on describing and analyzing the practice of self-assessment for students of history education at Hanoi National University of Education through module "Researching, compiling and teaching local history in high schools" This research also recommends some solutions for practicing self-assessment skills for students, meeting the requirements of Vietnamese Teaching Standards.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1306-1311. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-10
Pub. Date: September 28, 2018
3679 Views1229 Downloads1 Likes
Developing Learning Media of Cirebonese Language
Original Research
This study employs the research and development model of Borg & Gall and Dick & Carey involving students of SMPN 4 Kota Cirebon. This study aims to develop Cirebonese language learning media for the junior high school of the eleventh-grade students. To find out the results of the content of media, instructional design and instructional media experts validation were conducted. In addition, individual, group, and field try out were conducted.The data regarding the quality of the product were collected through questionnaire then analyzed by using descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis. The try-out process involved the experts of Cirebonese language media and instructional design. It also involved six students an individual (one to one) try out, fifteen students for group and thirty-four students for the field try out.The results showed, first, because t, 3,0569E-18 or = 3.0569 x 10-18 or = .000000000000030596 smaller than t table at a significance level (α) amounted to 2.034515 0.05, then it rejects Ho and accepts Ha. It can be concluded that the Cirebonese language learning using developed instructional media is effective in improving students' learning outcomes. Second, the mean scores after using the media of Cirebonese language learning showed higher (better) than before using learning media of Cirebonese language. It is shown in the table Paired Sample Statistics, where the mean score before using media language learning Cirebon amounted 50.44117647 while the mean score after using learning media of Cirebonese language amounted 65.88235294. This means that learning media of Cirebonese language has a positive effect. Third, because the learning media of Cirebonese language had a positive influence, so that the decision to develop a program learning media Cirebonese language ensures to have practical significance.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1301-1305. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-9
Pub. Date: September 26, 2018
3877 Views1205 Downloads
STEM Education: Organizing high School Students in Vietnam using Engineering Design Process to Fabricate Water Purification Systems
Original Research
Engineering design process is one of the problem – solving approachs used in STEM education. Students can engage in the practices of the engineering field through solving problems using the engineering design process. Based on literature reviews on Engineering design process as well as fabricating water filter system, this study presents 36 tenth-grade students of high school in Vietnam completed an engineering-based problem on filtering water involving integrated STEM learning. Students employed five – step engineering design processes and STEM disciplinary knowledge to plan, sketch, construct, evaluate and redesign water filter systems taken from public fountains, tap water, river water, sea water, and water contaminated with alum.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1289-1300. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-8
Pub. Date: September 20, 2018
6523 Views1461 Downloads9 Likes
The Influence of the Schools of Mathematical Thought to the Development of Mathematics Education
Original Research
In this article the effects of the ideas of the main schools of mathematical thought are studied on the development of mathematics education. Crucial problems that occupy nowadays the interest of those working in the field are also discussed, such as the future role of computers for the teaching and learning of mathematics. It is concluded that, although none of the existing schools of mathematical thought has succeeded in finding a solid framework for mathematics, most of the recent advances of this science were obtained through their disputations about the absolute mathematical truth. On the contrary, these disputations have created serious problems in the sensitive area of mathematics education, the most characteristic being the failure of the introduction of the “New Mathematics” to school education that distressed students and teachers for many years. The required thing for those working in this area of mathematics education is, without abandoning their persona; ideas, to search for a proper balance among the several philosophical aspects of mathematics. This will bring the required tranquillity in the area, in order to be developed smoothly for the benefit of the future generations.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1283-1288. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-7
Pub. Date: September 18, 2018
8003 Views2651 Downloads1 Likes
Predictors of Entrepreneurs’ Contribution in the Socio-Economic Development of Youth in Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines
Original Research
Trite as it may sound but it has been said time and again that the role of the youth in nation building is indispensable. They have taken active roles in different areas of life, more notably, in business and economic sectors. Thus, this study was undertaken to determine the predictors of entrepreneurs’ contribution in the socio-economic development of youth in Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. Descriptive-correlational design was employed in the study. Questionnaires were used to gather data from 641 entrepreneur-respondents chosen through stratified random sampling and taken from 62 barangays of the city. Data gathered were processed and analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS version 23. The results showed that the profile of the entrepreneurs is a predicting factor that affects management status, level of organizational climate, financial status and extent of contribution to socio-economic development of youth. It also concluded that the management status, level of organizational climate and financial status influenced the extent of contribution to socio-economic development of youth in the locale. It is recommended that more youth empowerment schemes be introduced primarily by the local government, by nongovernmental agencies and by concerned private entrepreneurs or groups.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1278-1282. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-6
Pub. Date: September 18, 2018
3852 Views1097 Downloads
Higher Education Development Policies in the Northern Region of Vietnam from 1954 to 1965 and the Impacts of these Policies on Vietnamese Education Today
Original Research
In the period of 1954-1965, Vietnamese higher education was developed in a very special historical context, which was the context of the country divided into two regions: The North was liberated, and entered the construction period of Socialism, while the South continued the people's democratic revolution. In the context of fierce war and starting point of difficult material foundations, with the proper policies and innovations of the Vietnam Labor Party and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the higher education in the North achieved tremendous achievements that we could call wonders. In this process, although there were limitations, universities and professional secondary institutions built up good traditions of self-reliant spirit, linking theory with practical labor production, patriotism and the fighting to protect the educational achievements made by the teachers and pupils of institutions... It showed that the education in the North was still young but contributed significantly to the cause of training the successors of the revolutionary cause of the Party and people of Vietnam.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1271-1277. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-5
Pub. Date: September 17, 2018
3340 Views1101 Downloads4 Likes
Assessment of Salivary Cortisol and Perceived Stress in Teachers
Original Research
Background: This study aimed at correlating the levels of salivary cortisol and perceived stress in male teachers, in three periods of the academic year (March, July, December). Methods: The collection of saliva for cortisol measurement was performed at 6:30 a.m., 11:30 a.m., and 5:30 p.m. on the same day that the BPSS-10 (Perceived Stress Scale, Brazilian version) was applied. The total concentration of cortisol was calculated using the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg). Results: When comparing the periods of the academic year, the mean stress score obtained in the month of March (16.46 ± 5.36) and December (17.54 ± 6.56) showed a significant difference compared with the mean results obtained in July (10.77 ± 5.64; p <0.01 and p <0.001. The AUCg value showed no significant difference between the periods analyzed (1.145 ± 0.450 µg/dL, 0.916 ± 0.341 µg/dL, and 1.031 ± 0.374 µg/dL, respectively). When analyzing the correlation between BPSS-10 values and total salivary cortisol throughout the school year, no statistical significance was found according to Pearson correlation coefficient (p = 0.554). Conclusions: The results suggest that the teachers, during the vacation period, might not perceive the physiological reactions of stress, so these reactions were not identified by the BPSS-10 used.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1264-1270. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-4
Pub. Date: September 13, 2018
5201 Views1933 Downloads
A Comparison Study of Buxiban Learning in Hong Kong and Taiwan
Original Research
The study aimed to explore students’ perspective and reasons for going to a Buxiban, and whether their English ability improved after attending a Buxiban. Buxibans, also known as cram schools, provide extra help to enhance the four skills needed to learn English. English as a subject is treated as an essential course when taking the college entrance examination for both Hong Kong and Taiwan students. It is common for students to seek additional help from a Buxiban. This study also tried to investigate the differences between Taiwan and Hong Kong Buxiban’s learning culture. Three hundred and ten high school students participated in this study. Four research questions were posed to understand students in Hong Kong and Taiwan, as well as their intention of attending a Buxiban and their evaluation after attending a Buxiban. A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of this study; it contained 25 questions. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability of this questionnaire in this study was .731. The descriptive statistics and t-test were computed. The result showed that students from both places had slightly different reasons for going to a Buxiban. They enjoyed Buxiban’s “varied teaching methods,” but “teacher appearance” was more important to Hong Kong students. Next, they never attended a Buxiban just for “killing time” but appreciated the “various resources” provided by them and aimed for a higher English score. Also, Taiwan students indicated they learned “vocabulary” more in a Buxiban whereas Hong Kong students learned more “grammar.” Fifty-three percent of Taiwan students perceived that a Buxiban helped them improve their English ability while 44% of Hong Kong students indicated they were helped. Furthermore, 65% of Hong Kong students stated that they expected to continue studying in a Buxiban but only 24% of Taiwan students would be willing to do so. At the end of this study, more pedagogical suggestions, future suggestions, and limitations of this study are discussed.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1257-1263. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-3
Pub. Date: September 12, 2018
5066 Views1937 Downloads2 Likes
English Article Writing of Iranian Doctoral Students
Original Research
This study focused on doctoral students’ English article writing practices and the challenges they have faced in this process. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 Iranian PhD students from different disciplines individually. In addition, drafts of the participants' English articles were collected for data verification. The results revealed that the linguistic elements of writing in English, especially grammar, were regarded as the most problematic aspects, whereas the meta-linguistic and discourse features of the article writing as well as knowledge of technical vocabulary were not identified as problematic areas by these doctoral students. A common need which was felt by almost all of the participants was a comprehensive and explicit instruction on sentence structure and grammar in ESP courses. Although participants of this study pursued some strategies in order to respond to some challenges they faced in writing English articles, they called for greater cooperation with ESP/EAP practitioners in order to ease the process of publishing their work in English.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1251-1256. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-2
Pub. Date: September 12, 2018
4267 Views1661 Downloads
Perception of School and University Students in Learning Physics in National Capital Region, India
Original Research
This study investigates and correlates the perception of school and university students in learning Physics at senior secondary, graduation and post graduation levels. The pedagogical experiments is conducted on learners’ of 10+2 class of school level and B.Sc.& M.Sc. class of University level. Authors will use the questionnaire’s method and will identify five types of research questions focused on concepts, understandings, relationship and applications, which reflects the commitment of the learners for learning physics. Each learner’s undergoes the questionnaire’s test. To analyze the results of experiment, linear regression statistical analysis technique is used to justify and correlate the significance of performance level of students at 10+2, graduate and post-graduate course. The study reveals that, on the average, the percentage of students in learning physics with strong positive commitment at 10+2, B.Sc. and M.Sc. level is almost same (46.1 – 46.3%) but it varies with positive commitment and poor or negative commitment. The study establishes that on the average, the students with negative commitment are less than 14%. The results of regression analysis tell that there is positive correlation among the learners at all levels and for all categories but their degree of correlation significantly varies. It can be seen that the coefficient of performance (r2) decreases for transition from B.Sc. to M.Sc. level for learners having strong positive, positive and negative commitments in physics learning.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1245-1250. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-1
Pub. Date: September 12, 2018
5588 Views1415 Downloads3 Likes