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Volume 6, Issue 6

A Corpus-based Research on Foreign Students' Chinese Interrogative Pronoun Errors
Original Research
Taking the interrogative pronouns ¡°Ê²Ã´sh¨¦n me (what)¡±, ¡°Ôõôz¨§n me (how)¡±, ¡°Ë­shu¨ª(who)¡± and ¡°ÄÄn¨£(where)¡± as examples and selecting language materials of foreign students¡¯ errors from the HSK corpora, this paper summarizes the error types, analyzes the error causes, and puts forward relevant teaching suggestions to help learners to clarify their usage, learn well the use of interrogative pronouns as soon as possible, and improve the accuracy in using interrogative pronouns.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 883-886. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-43
Pub. Date: June 30, 2018
3896 Views1461 Downloads2 Likes
The Process of Approaching and Implementing Experiential Learning for Teaching Maths to Junior Secondary School Students in Viet Nam
Original Research
Vietnam's current general education curriculum is designed in a content-oriented manner and there is a lack of capability-orientation for students. With the requirement of human resource training for the country's industrialization and modernization, the Vietnamese Communist Party Central Committee promulgated Resolution No. 29-NQ/TW dated 4 November 2013 with the basic orientation for the fundamental and comprehensive reform of education and training in Vietnam. One of its major breakthroughs is to renovate the teaching and learning methods in learners’ capacity development-oriented manner. Teaching mathematics to junior secondary school students through experiential activities is of considerable interest to a large number of Vietnamese authors nowadays. It is not only appropriate for the psychological characteristics of the junior secondary school students, who gradually shift from the learning method based on visual model and conceptual description at the elementary level to the learning approach based on conceptual definitions and logical reasoning; but it also meets the orientation of mathematical education in Vietnam’s new General Education Curriculum. In order to reach these goals, it is required of the teachers to have appropriate and effective ways in the organization of experiential activities to meet the requirements of the educational reform. As a matter of fact, the proposals for implementing experiential learning in Maths classes for junior secondary school students is not yet of great concern. This article discusses the approach of Vietnamese education in recent years in order to catch up with the new General Education Curriculum, which is expected to be nationwide applied in 2019. A number of steps for organizing experiential activities for Mathematics learners are also mentioned in the paper.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 877-882. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-42
Pub. Date: June 20, 2018
5711 Views2503 Downloads
A Study of Teacher’s Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Mental Health among Higher Secondary School of Thanjavur District
Original Research
The Normative survey research was conducted to find out the influences of Teacher’s Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Mental Health among higher secondary school teachers of Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu, India. The random samples of 152 higher secondary school teachers and 577 students were selected for collecting data. The independent variables are Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence. The dependent variable of the study is Mental Health and the moderator variables of the study are Gender, Locality, Subject Taught, Management Type, School Type and Years of Experience. The investigators of the study have used standardized tool for measuring the variables. Descriptive, Inferential and Regression Analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Descriptive analysis envisages that the Intelligent Quotient (IQ) of higher secondary school teachers is superior; Emotional Intelligence of the school teachers is high and the mental health of the higher secondary students is good. Inferential analysis explores that the Intelligent Quotient (IQ) of the higher secondary school teachers is significant with Gender and not significant with other moderator variables; the emotional intelligence of higher secondary school teachers is significant with Subject Stream, Experience and not significant with other moderator variables and the mental health of higher secondary school students is significant with all moderator variables. The intelligence and emotional intelligence of high school teachers influences the mental health of the higher secondary school students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 869-876. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-41
Pub. Date: June 14, 2018
9605 Views2491 Downloads2 Likes
Strengthening Teacher’s Competence in Implementing 2013 Curriculum through Empowering the Management of Junior Secondary School (JSS) Subject Teacher Working Group (STWG)
Case Study
This study aims to investigate the JSS teachers’ knowledge and skill and to strengthen STWG to solve the teachers’problems in implementing 2013 curriculum. Using document analysis, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews, research found out that the quality of teachers is still below the average of the government achievement target. The study also revealed that JSS teachers find difficult to describe students’ learning achievement qualitatively. To strengthen teachers’ competence and skill, it is needed to empower JSS STWG roles to share and discuss the implementation of the 2013 curriculum at their class through better teaching and learning instruction.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 858-868. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-40
Pub. Date: June 13, 2018
4723 Views1268 Downloads
Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Kenya
Original Research
This study looks at some significant variables in Adventist schools in relation to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The study is designed to address the problem, “To what extent does transformational leadership relate to the OCB of the teachers?” The study seeks to provide a better theoretical understanding of OCB in Adventist schools in Kenya. One of the elements that enhance the performance of an organization is the OCB of its workers. Although OCB is important, little is known about the factors contributing to willingness of teachers going an extra mile in their workplace. The respondents were 170 teachers from Adventist schools in Kenya. The teachers responded to 2 instruments along with demographic variables. These were the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The instruments utilized in the study (MLQ and OCB) were adequate for utilization in Adventist schools in Kenya. Teachers with lower than bachelor’s degree education, below 30 years of age, and have been teaching for less than one year in the school were significantly different than other categories, on transformational leadership style and OCB.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 845-857. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-39
Pub. Date: June 13, 2018
5844 Views2540 Downloads
The Competence of Graduates in Machining Technology Vocational High Schools Based on National Practical Exam in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Original Research
This study aimed at describing the level of graduates’ competence in Machining Technology Vocational High Schools (VHSs) based on 2015/2016 academic year National Practical Exam (NPE) and to see if practical courses teaching and learning facilities meet the minimum standards criteria which can be used as the input in improving learning process. The study used observation and documentation as data collection instruments. Data were collected from four (4) VHSs using observation guides and NPE results reports with 369 as the number of NPE participants and all the participants were considered. Results show that there is a lack of practical courses teaching and learning facilities because they are not proportional to the number of students, most available facilities are outdated and others are damaged. It was also found that regarding preparation scoring component all participants were into very competent category with 100%; concerning process they were into competent category with 88.82%, concerning attitudes they were into very competent category with 95.48%, concerning product they were into fairly competent category with 79.48%, concerning the time efficiency they were into very competent category with 95.39% and concerning the overall score they were into competent category with 88.49%.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 840-844. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-38
Pub. Date: June 13, 2018
4010 Views1164 Downloads5 Likes
The Effect of Context-Based Chemistry Learning on Student Achievement and Attitude
Original Research
Many countries have implemented context-based learning in the last 20 years. Through this context-based learning, students are taught learning materials that are relevant to everyday life. This research is an experimental research with posttest only design. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of context-based learning on student achievement and attitudes on acid-base material. The result of the research shows that there is an influence of context-based chemistry learning on student achievement and attitude.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 836-839. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-37
Pub. Date: June 12, 2018
5378 Views2080 Downloads1 Likes
The Flipped Classroom: Using Thematic Teaching to Develop Critical Thinking for High School Students
Original Research
The 21st century education tends to train comprehensive human with a range of capacities and working skills in a collaborative environment and towards global citizens, with a particular emphasis on developing critical thinking for learners. People with high level of critical thinking can develop skills, abilities and core values that help them succeed in life. In education, however, critical thinking is not the only goal separate from other important components and it is seen as one of the most important competencies of learner to develop. There has been various ways, methods and techniques to develop critical thinking for students so far. One of those is the flipped classroom model which is used successfully in universities in US, Australia.... This paper aims to introduce such flipped classroom model and its use in the thematic teaching to develop critical thinking for students as well as provide an example for the use of this model in teaching the topic "The use of cosmetics in school - Risks to be learned" for grade 11 students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 828-835. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-36
Pub. Date: June 11, 2018
4939 Views1675 Downloads
Scientific Basis to Build Criteria for High School Students’ Kindness in Vietnam
Original Research
Kindness is a core value playing as a foundation for the educating of human’s other moral qualities. Vietnam’s general education program continues its focus on developing traditional values and national ethics, human’s cultural elite to meet the basic and modern requirements in a suitable way for students’ ages and psychology. Therefore, “kindness” is necessary to be formed and developed in Vietnamese students. Plus, the research on building kindness criteria framework to serve practical education and the evaluation of educating kindness is very important. Based on the results of theoretical and practical researches on kindness, expression of kindness in relationships between people, the article proposes a criteria framework for Vietnamese high school students’ kindness nowadays. The framework includes five groups of characteristic: “Loving and sharing”; "Sympathy and mercy"; "Tolerance and forgiveness"; “Solidarity and having responsibility”; “gratefulness and respect” with 25 equivalent behaviors. That will be a basis for the education and self-education, evaluation and self-evaluation of results of educating kindness for high school students to meet the current social context.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 822-827. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-35
Pub. Date: June 11, 2018
4028 Views1316 Downloads
The Effectiveness of Self-management Strategy of Cormier & Cormier Model to Increase Academic Self-efficacy of High School Students
Original Research
The common symptom experienced by high school students is the lack of ability to find the effective ways to complete the school work and tasks. They are generally lacking in self-efficacy, meaning that they are not quite sure about their capability to determine the ways that can make themselves a success in completing the tasks. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of self-management strategy, one of the contemporary behavior-changing strategies to improve the self-efficacy of high school students. There are three combination of techniques (1) a combination of self-monitoring with self-reward; (2) a combination of self-monitoring with stimulus-control; and (3) a combination of self-monitoring with self-reward and stimulus-control. The present experimental study with a pretest-posttest-control group design found that the combination of self-monitoringing with stimulus control techniques was the most effective to improve the self-efficacy of high school students while the other combinations of techniques were less effective.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 816-821. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-34
Pub. Date: June 12, 2018
6220 Views2634 Downloads
Application of Debating Method in teaching Vietnam’s Historical Figures (10th Century – 19thCentury) at High School in Order to Develop Students’ Critical Thinking
Original Research
Discussion is the method with advantage in promoting the interaction between teachers and pupils, between pupils and pupils and between pupils and contents of knowledge. Organizing discussions for pupils will help them aware more comprehensively and profoundly of a historical character or a historical event. The use of discussion method in teaching about historical characters at schools also contributes to development of critic thought for pupils - an important skill determining whether learners succeed or not. Teachers may organize discussions for pupils about historical characters under 3 forms: group discussion, individual discussion and discussion between teacher and pupils. Each form has its own advantages requiring teachers’ thorough grasp of technique to apply efficiently.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 811-815. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-33
Pub. Date: June 07, 2018
3431 Views1020 Downloads
The Status of Applying E-learning in Holding Students’ Self-Study of the Subject Educationin Pedagogical Universities in Vietnam
Original Research
Education is a subject that directly demonstrates occupational characteristics of teaching career, setting up an important professional foundation for teacher education at pedagogical universities in Vietnam. This subject equips teacher students with basic modern theories of education to create their pedagogical skills so that after graduation they can conduct well their teaching and education activities, enabling them to continuously improve their pedagogical capacity to meet the increasing demands of education. One of the new directions to improve the teaching quality of the subject Education is the use of E-learning to organize self-study activities for teacher students in pedagogical universities. In order to have an effective E-learning model, we conducted a survey on the reality of using E-learning in organizing self-study activities in the subject Education for teacher students of Vietnam's pedagogical universities. The results gained in the survey will be an important practical basis for schools to adopt E-learning methods in an appropriate and quality way.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 804-810. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-32
Pub. Date: June 07, 2018
4697 Views1711 Downloads1 Likes
Moral Education at Vietnamese Schools in the Present Globalization Trend
Original Research
We are now living in an age of fully competitive and changing globalization. During this change process, it is essential to deeply acknowledge the nature and effects of this process to help us minimizing risks. Meanwhile, it is important to develop a sustainable economy and to absorb the quintessence of human culture, and at the same time, to prevent the risks of social ethic deterioration. In such context, education of ethics and values for students has become more and more exigent and should focus on practical contents.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 795-803. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-31
Pub. Date: June 07, 2018
4221 Views1663 Downloads
Current Situation and Solutions to Guide Students to Evaluate Events in Teaching History at High Schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Original Research
This article reflects the research results of the group of authors involved in guiding students to evaluate events in history teaching at high schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Based on the sources of reference and field surveys, the authors focus on four key areas: 1) Overview of event and event evaluation in history teaching at high schools; 2) Justify the need to guide students in evaluating events in history teaching; 3) Provide a picture of the situation that guides students to evaluate events in history teaching at high schools - through investigation, surveys in Ho Chi Minh City; 4) To propose some solutions and orientations for history teachers at high schools on the process and ways of guiding students to evaluate events in the course of organization of teaching and learning activities oriented competency development.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 787-794. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-30
Pub. Date: June 07, 2018
4348 Views1287 Downloads6 Likes
Effective Social Work Intervention to Reduce Aggressive Behavior in School: A Case Study in Vietnam
Original Research
Individual social work is a professional method which social workers use in the school to help client identify and actively address the aggressive and negative behavior. The purpose of this paper is to assess the aggressive behavior of Vietnamese 14-year-old boy in secondary school. This paper presents an effective individual social work progress to reduce aggressive behavior in this case.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 779-786. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-29
Pub. Date: June 01, 2018
5445 Views1214 Downloads
School-Enterprise Collaboration Oriented Model of Skilled Worker Training in Mekong Delta Region, Vietnam
Original Research
School-enterprise collaboration to technical and vocational training is an important solution to develop and improve the quality of human resources. Basing on the analysis of school-enterprise collaboration factors in training process, and labors characteristics in Mekong Delta, this article proposes the model of skilled worker training. Accordingly, enterprises join in the training process of vocational schools under the supportive from local policies. In training process, the vocational schools focus on teaching students in professional ethic, labor discipline and industrial-style, basic technical knowledge and professional skills. After that, the enterprises support students to practice in technical capacity improvement, professional ethic and industrial-style development. If the school-enterprise co-operation in technical and vocational training bases on the supporting of policies from the state authorities, it will ensure the interests for students, vocational schools and enterprises. Thus, this collaboration also contributes to develop the human resources in Mekong Delta, Vietnam to match with the current context.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 773-778. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-28
Pub. Date: June 02, 2018
5511 Views2048 Downloads1 Likes
The School Book 4.0: The Multitouch Learning Book as a Learning Companion
Original Research
This manuscript introduces the Multitouch Learning Book as a learning guide for school chemistry lessons. It is an e-book with integrated multimedia content, in which additional interactive materials are integrated. The use of chemistry lessons offers various advantages in terms of individual support, teaching methods and the combination of teaching with extra-curricular learning locations. Multitouch Learning Books can be grouped into the Huwer and Brünken (2018) model, which describes the dimensions of the use of digital media in individual learning processes. The first dimension describes the three operating modes of the tablet as an experimental tool, a learning tool, as well as a learning companion, the second dimension describes the methodological implementation of the tablet and the third dimension describes individualization. In addition, this document introduces the independently created Multitouch Learning Book on the topic of the particle model. During the preparation process, the current state of the art in research on the topics covered and the possibilities for individual funding was taken into account. In addition, an empirical study was conducted to investigate the influence on cognitive learning growth.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 763-772. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-27
Pub. Date: May 30, 2018
11334 Views4691 Downloads5 Likes
Assessment of Problem Solving Ability and Creativity in Chemistry Teaching at Secondary Schools in Binh Dinh, Vietnam
Original Research
Chemistry plays an important role at the secondary school in developing common abilities and professional abilities, including problem solving competency and creativity. This is one of the core competencies that need to be set up and developed for students to meet the requirements of general education’s renovation. The assessment of the learner's ability to solve problems and creativity has many meanings in the educational process. This article presents a process for assessing problem solving competency and creativity in teaching chemistry at secondary schools in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 757-762. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-26
Pub. Date: May 28, 2018
6259 Views2195 Downloads3 Likes
The Situation of Co-operative Skills Education for 5-6 year-old ASD Children through Playing in Kindergartens in Son Hoa District, Phu Yen, Vietnam
Original Research
This paper aims to assess the current situation of cooperative skills education for 5-6 year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through play activities at some kindergartens in Son Hoa district, Phu Yen province. Lessons can be learned for teachers in the process of cooperative skills development for autistic children in integrated kindergartens. The results of theoretical research and the situation indicate that 1) Understanding the thoughts, emotions and attitudes of others, knowing how to express their emotions, and behaving in accordance with certain circumstances and situations are the difficulties that closely attach to ASD children; 2) ASD children perform better when playing alone than when cooperating and sharing with other children; 3) Children need to be reminded and supported by adults when playing with a group; 4) Teachers adapt a variety of play activities for the best educational effectiveness; however, outdoor activities prove to be most effective; 5) Play activities in kindergarten plays a major role in the development of cooperative skills for children, so the development of co-operative skills for children through play activities should be quickly implemented; 6) Focus should be put on engaging children groups in inclusive classes to support the collaborative skills education for ASD children.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 749-756. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-25
Pub. Date: May 28, 2018
5720 Views2212 Downloads2 Likes
Developing Students’ Problem-Solving Capacity through the Teaching of Integrated Natural Science in Secondary Schools in Vietnam
Original Research
Currently, Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training is implementing significant reforms in national general education. One of the main goals of new general education curriculum is to develop students’ capacity. This paper presents findings of the research on the development of problem-solving capacity through the use of Project-based Learning Method and Problem – based Learning Method in the teaching of integrated natural science in secondary schools.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 741-748. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-24
Pub. Date: May 26, 2018
5628 Views1718 Downloads
From Hierarchical Power Structures to Rhizomatic Possibilities: An Argument for Affective Systems in US Public Schools
Original Research
For more than 100 years, the US public education system has remained faithful to its hierarchical power structure, constructing knowledge at the top through state and federal efforts, then disseminating it down to districts, schools, administrators, teachers, and finally students. This paper argues that the assumed naturalism of this hierarchical power structure has resulted in a system that consistently fails to provide adequate services to urban, poor students of color as evidenced by the high rates of school dropout among this population. The contemporary issue of dropout in urban public schools is first located in the historiography of the Progressive Era. Next, a critically reflexive case study of the author's experience working as a dropout prevention counselor for a large urban school district is presented. Lastly, the issue of dropout is re-located through affective contextualization, articulating what could emerge with a shift from hierarchical power structures to rhizomatic possibilities.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 735-740. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-23
Pub. Date: May 26, 2018
3645 Views1278 Downloads1 Likes
Factors that Affect the Academic Performance of Pharmacy Students at the University of Costa Rica
Original Research
Introduction: in the complex process of teaching and learning, there are are factors from different sources that can affect the academic performance of students. Objective: to find the factors that affect the academic performance of Pharmacy students at the University of Costa Rica (UCR). Methodology: In 2017, a data collection instrument was designed with 164 items, organized in the following 5 sections: aspects that affect academic performance before entering university (8 items), aspects in the first years (37 items), aspects in later years (86 items), socioeconomic-geographical aspects (25 items) and general aspects (8 items). The students participated voluntarily and for each element included in the instrument, the students selected if that element affected the academic performance in a positive or negative way. The data was handled confidentially and the respective statistical analyzes were carried out. Results: 307 students participated in the study; most of the second and third level of the curriculum; 86% had between 1 and 6 years of studies; most entered and maintain a weighted average that is acceptable; most only study Pharmacy; the largest amount comes from public schools, 67% comes from the urban area; 50% have not failed courses or have only failed between 1 and 4 courses, it was found that the higher the number of non-approved courses, the students extend the time in the curriculum and there was a correlation between the opinion of the factors that affect the academic performance and the number of years in the studies. Conclusions: the factors that affect academic performance are related to institutional, personal and social aspects; some occur in stages prior to university admission, during the first years or at any other time later.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 729-734. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-22
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
3857 Views1022 Downloads
A Study of Foreign Language Anxiety of Chinese EFL High School Students
Original Research
This paper aims to explore the status quo of English learning anxiety of Chinese EFL high school students to provide suggestions to deduce it. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) is used to make an investigation into 293 high school students of different grades in Yuemiao High School in China. By both qualitative and quantitative analyses of data collected from the questionnaires, it finds out that ① a medium level of English learning anxiety existed widely in the students of Yuemiao High School (M=3.115, SD=0.58). Test Anxiety is the highest (Mean=3.244). Fear of Negative Evaluation is the lowest (Mean=2.981). ② In terms of grade, three grades have statistically significant differences in anxiety (p=0.005<0.05). The anxiety level of grade one is the highest (M=3.247); grade three is medium (M=3.130); grade two is the lowest (M=2.975). ③ For different gender, there is statistical difference (p=0.025<0.05). The male’s total anxiety is higher than the female’s (Mean (Male) = 3.203 > Mean (Female) = 3.052), especially in Communication Anxiety (p=0.013 < 0.05; Mean (Male) = 3.233 > Mean (Female) =3.058). ④ In terms of different majors, there is no statistical significance in English learning anxiety (p>0.05). Therefore, to minimize students’ English learning anxiety, English teachers should improve their teaching skills, build a better and more harmonious relationship with students to attract students’ interest and explore a cooperative learning mode between male and female students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 722-728. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-21
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
8185 Views2860 Downloads
Development of Professional Qualifications for Secondary Level Natural Sciences Teachers Meeting the Requirement of Vietnam Education Innovation
Original Research
Science at the moment is at the cognitive level of theoretical model associated with the technological model. Hence, it‘s required that the science education in common school shall select the contents in a way to meet the formation of students with the most basic, core and common knowledge; and on the basis of that knowledge, students have the capacity to apply the scientific processes and principles to make personal decisions through resolving cognitive issues and life practices. The question is that what are professional qualifications the teachers need to teach natural sciences subject in common level. The article explains the reasons why it is necessary to develop professional qualifications for natural sciences teachers. Thereby, the author develops a professional development capacity framework for natural sciences teachers. Based on this capacity framework, a number of measures have been proposed for developing professional qualifications for secondary level natural sciences teachers in Vietnam. The proposed measures aim to the fact that the teachers have a broad knowledge base, are capable of integrated teaching and deep classification teaching for career orientation; meeting the requirements of ongoing education reform in Vietnam.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 716-721. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-20
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
3815 Views1347 Downloads
Building Student Outcome Standard of High School Teacher Training Programs in Vietnam
Original Research
This article presents scientific basis for developing student outcome framework for high school teacher training programs. The student outcome framework built in direction of approaching students’ qualities, capacities includes 5 standards: Developing personal qualities and profession values; General capacity; Specialistic capacity; Pedagogical competence; Profession development capacity. Based on this framework, education universities build student outcome standard for each faculty by relying on a system of controlled steps. Each outcome standard of a training program must determine specific requirements of profession competencies. Each standard consists of the criteria of competence. And each criterion is specifically divided into 2-3 indicators and the outcome will base on a 7-level scale for assessment. This is to ensure correctly evaluating capacities of graduates from high school teacher training programs.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 710-715. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-19
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4379 Views1506 Downloads3 Likes
Theory of Constructivism and the Orientation of Hanoi Retraining College for Teachers and Educational Managers in Building a Model of Constructive School in Vietnam
Original Research
Theory of constructivism was suggested in the early 20th century by Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980, a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist); since then, it has been applied to many fields, especially in education. In many countries, including Vietnam, the theory of constructivism has become one of the main tendencies in reforming education. Building and managing schools based on constructivism, also known as model constructive schools, are becoming the orientation of developing modern education. To achieve this model, the utmost prerequisite is to have qualified managing and teaching staff that can fulfill the school developing requirements. Hanoi Retraining College for Teachers and Educational Managers has been given a very important task of “Strengthen professional knowledge and career service for staff and teachers who manage and teach in the educational institutions in Hanoi”. In this paper, orientational solutions to fulfill the requirements in developing institutions based on the theory of constructivism in Vietnam are proposed.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 703-709. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-18
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4065 Views1509 Downloads
Ecological Culture and Educational Issue of Ecological Culture – Motivation for the Human Development
Original Research
Nowadays, mankind is facing with the increasing of ecological disasters, the deeper study of the relationship between human and nature which discusses, gives scientific literature review and develops the core development philosophy - ecological culture to ensure the sustainable development of humanity is really urgent. Ecological culture education is one of the basic solutions in order to develop ecological culture become a motive force for the sustainable development of nations as well as for the future of humanity.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 694-702. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-17
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4835 Views1727 Downloads
Continuous Assessment Feedback and Students’ Performances in Semester Examinations in a College of Education
Original Research
The study sought to compare the end of semester examination performance of NCE student-teachers in Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri whose continuous assessment (CA) feedback were given and those whose continuous assessment feedback were not given and also ascertain the proportion of lecturers who give CA feedback to their students. A quasi-experimental study involving two random groups, treatment post-test design was adopted. The two groups involved in the study are group A with CA feedback (CAWF) and group B without CA feedback (CAWOF). A systematic sample of 42 participants was drawn from a population of 210 Biology/Chemistry student teachers who took Measurement and Evaluation as an education course using their CA scores. The sample was split into two equal halves of 21 each to form group A (CAWF) and group B (CAWOF) respectively using random sampling techniques by balloting. The instruments used for data collection were researchers-made items as well as face to face interview. Three research questions and three hypotheses were postulated. Frequency tables were used to present data which were used to answer each of the research questions. Independent samples t-tests were used to test hypotheses 1 and 2, while binomial test was used to test hypothesis 3. Findings showed a significant difference between the mean performances of CAWF group (70.2) and the CAWOF group (53.8). However, the end of semester total examination scores does not significantly differ according to gender. The proportion of lecturers who give CA feedback to students was 0.28. Among other recommendations is that lecturers should be trained in implementing CA strategies (especially the area of giving feedback) as it has direct effect on students performance in end of semester examination.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 688-693. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-16
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
6918 Views2512 Downloads
Teaching Education Courses Based on Case Study Method in Pedagogical Universities in Vietnam
Original Research
Vietnam is in the process of renovating general education which poses many problems in teacher education. The subjects of professional knowledge in pedagogical schools, including the subject of Education is being strongly reformed in terms of contents, programs and teaching methods. Teaching the subject Education baseb on case study method is an effective solution for developing students’ pedagogical professional competences. However, in practice, whether the case study methodology has been used by the faculty in teaching Education courses or not, and the results have not been studied. This article aims to provide the data, information and observations for the situation in Vietnam in recent years, setting up a scientific basis for innovation and improvement of pedagogical training process in Vietnam in the next years.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 681-687. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-15
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4865 Views1646 Downloads4 Likes
Home Environment and Parental Involvement as Determinants of Preschoolers’ Readiness for Primary School Education in Osun State, Nigeria
Original Research
The study assessed the home environment of preschoolers. It determined the level of involvement of parents. It further determined the interaction effect of home environment and parental involvement on preschoolers’ readiness for primary school education. These were with a view to providing information on the factors that could influence readiness in preschoolers. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Parents of preschoolers in Osun State constituted the population for the study. The sample consisted of 300 parents from twelve schools. The samples were selected using multistage sampling procedure. Six Local Government Areas were selected from the three Senatorial Districts in Osun State using simple random sampling technique. From each Local Government, two private schools were selected using simple random sampling technique. From each of the 12 nursery schools, 25 parents were selected using purposive sampling technique. An instrument titled: Questionnaire on Home Environment, Parental Involvement and Preschoolers’ Readiness (QHEPIPR) was used to elicit information from the respondents. Percentages, frequency counts, t-test and ANOVA were employed to analyse the data. The results of the study showed that high percentage (71%) of preschoolers have homes that stimulate them for education by provision of educational materials, conducive reading atmosphere, good habits, monitored hours of television viewing, learning something new daily, deliberate conversations daily, planned time-out with the children, and punishment for misbehaviours. 14.0%, 70%, and 16% of the respondents have low, moderate and high level of parental involvement in preschoolers’ education. Also, the results showed that the home environment and parental involvement would significantly determine preschoolers’ readiness for primary school education (N=300, t=-59.996, p < 0.05) and (N=300,t = 21.483, p < 0.05) respectively while the interaction effect of home environment and parental involvement would also significantly determine preschoolers’ readiness for primary school education (N=300,F = 689.479, p = 0.000).The study concluded that home environment and parental involvement significantly determined preschoolers’ readiness for primary school education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 673-680. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-14
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
7542 Views2791 Downloads
Contextualizing the First Two Years of the Libyan Education Reform Proposed Strategies (2020-2026): Targeted Candidates and Reflective Activities
Original Research
This paper is a continuation of the previous published paper “National Libyan Public Education Reform: Entire Transformative Strategies, 2020–2026 – November 2017,”which proposed a framework for reforming Libyan public education with consideration of the difficulties that educators and learners facing due to the confusing conditions. It divided the reform plan into three phases in six years of gradual reform (for example, 2020-2026) to overcome their faced constraints, which come from the existing economic effects, discouraged forms of education, changeable curriculums, bureaucratic schools and university organizations, the conservative community, two generations of teachers, and uncertain education strategies. Another factor is the way learners learn (learning styles), besides current political upheavals all over Libya (civil war), which affected the entire stability of education in Libya and led to there being two ministries of education (east and west Libya). Therefore, six years of gradual reform stages were planned so that a new generation of students will start with pre-kindergarten in academic year 2026, or six years after the start of the strategy. This idea is the result of several published studies on the Libyan education context, which led to insights on implementing complete reform approaches for the entire Libyan education system. Accordingly, I will explain in depth each of the three phases in separate papers, starting with this paper, which aims to contextualize Phase 1 of the first two years (2020-2022) of the entire suggested proposal (2020-2026 or equal years).
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 664-672. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-13
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4602 Views1411 Downloads1 Likes
The Image of Women in Some Ancient Indian Literary Works Teaching in Vietnam at the Present
Original Research
In ancient India society, the women had little to no importance in the family and in society but were a spiritual support and foundation for hero’s strength in particular and for the community strength in general. The women were able to inspire action and hero’s aspirations with her own nobility and deep human affection. The general characteristics of the women in ancient Indian literature were their compassion and generosity, their persistence and patience spirit, their love, faithful loyalty and the desire for happiness which are considered as “the golden rule”, the typical image for Indian culture and an endless source of inspiration for Indian art and literature. The portrayal of women with the outer and inner beauty in relation to social issues (religion, caste, marriage) according to the concept of Dharma praised and respected by the Indian people.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 658-663. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-12
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4049 Views1320 Downloads6 Likes
Impact of Concept Mapping and Modular Learning Techniques on Pupils’ Achievement for the Selected Topics in Mathematics
Original Research
This research emphasizes on an alternate instructional tools called “Concept Map and Modular learning techniques”. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using concept maps and modular learning techniques in improving the mathematics achievement of higher secondary students and compare it with a traditional approach for a mathematics unit. Both the control and the experimental groups were required to take a pre-test before instruction and a post-test at the end of instruction. The test consisting of 30 questions was used to assess learning gains on a Mathematics Unit about Trigonometry and Differential Calculus. Moreover, results showed that the levels of concept mapping and modular learning techniques ability were associated with the students’ learning gains. The study suggests that, when carefully integrated into the normal classroom procedure and when other contributing factors such as student motivation and preparedness, reading ability levels, time and classroom environment are considered, concept mapping and modular learning techniques has a potential to be an effective instructional strategy. To enforce the title of the study, the researcher had determined to verify the results from a different angle using the normative survey method to justify the impact of attitude towards mathematics homework. Based on the findings and discussions, XI standard students are having positive mathematics homework attitude towards concept mapping and modular learning techniques for the topics trigonometry and differential calculus.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 649-657. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-11
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
7304 Views2599 Downloads6 Likes
The Performance and Mathematical Attitude of Analytic and Global Learners: A Comparative Study
Original Research
This study was conducted to identify performance and attitude of analytic and global learners towards mathematics. Performances in a research-made Achievement Test were determined according to their mean and standard deviation scores. Mean attitudes were interpreted as very positive, generally positive, neutral, slightly positive, and negative using the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scale. On the basis of the mean and standard deviation score, it was found out that the global learners have slightly higher performance than the analytic learners. Their attitudes were both generally positive. However, it was observed that some analytic learners’ attitudes towards mathematics were very positive. There is a significant difference in the performance and attitude towards mathematics of analytic and global learners. Moreover, the significant relationship existed between analytic students’ performance and attitude towards mathematics. This is also true among global learners.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 644-648. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-10
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
5668 Views2086 Downloads1 Likes
Tran Quoc Tuan’s Perception of Human Virtuous Way through the Work “Hịch tướng sĩ” (Encouragement to Soldiers)
Original Research
The Encouragement to Soldiers is the work attached with name of a world-reputable supreme commander – Tran Quoc Tuan, Great King of Hung Dao who contributed a big share of maKing East Asia Magnanimity during Tran Dynasty of Vietnam. Aiming to encouraging solider spirit, gathering national united power for the sake of the struggle against the second Mongol Invasion, Encouragement to Soldiers came to being and rose the fire of patriotism inside each Vietnamese from that made the great victory of Vietnam over the Mongolia Empire, the most powerful Kingdom of the world at that time. Moreover, the work presents a statement that patriotism is the most respectable one among human virtuous way. Patriotism in Encouragement to Soldiers bears elements of humanity attaching with and mixing into family love and happiness desire of each person on the ground of unification between individual interest and collective and national interest. Studying Tran Quoc Tuan’s perception of human virtuous way in the Encouragement to Soldiers will help us understand further the East Asia Magnanimity and contribute to develop precious properties and durable values of Vietnam’ culture, at the same time form a foundation to build a traditional Vietnamese culture within such a situation like today.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 638-643. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-9
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4187 Views1584 Downloads
A Meta Synthesis of Content Analysis Approaches
Original Research
The present analyzing is an attempt to Meta synthesis of content analysis method. The content analysis method was collected by the journals like as “The qualitative Report, Google Scholar and JSTOR”. The sample consists of literature reviews based on content analysis method. Every reviews detail was noted. The reviews responses were in a synthesis. The synthesis refers information about content analysis method. Therefore the investigators categorized the content analysis method reviews. A synthesis of content analysis method review is formed in conclusion and finalizing the common approach of content analysis.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 632-637. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-8
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
5304 Views1741 Downloads4 Likes
Evaluation and Proposals for Improving the Situation of Environmental Education in Morocco
Original Research
This work aims to highlight the different foundations, actors, tools and approaches of environmental education (EE) and to evaluate the tools and approaches to EE in Morocco based on an intersectorial approach. Research data have been collected via two complementary tools: a questionnaire and face to face interviews. Fourteen questions made our questionnaire that we administered in place or through emails and social media networks. The sample of the research is composed of 720 interviewed. The results show that EE in Morocco is characterized by a diversity of tools and approaches. However, the development of environmental education is faced with several obstacles. Concrete actions in environmental education in Morocco need to be strengthened; Most of them focus on education about the environment. Improvement is needed to fill gaps and to develop EE in the various Moroccan ministerial departments in harmony with the specificities and cultural heritage of the country. To this end, we suggest some ways to improve the development of EE well adapted to the Moroccan context.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 621-631. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-7
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
5540 Views1868 Downloads2 Likes
Individual Innovativeness of Pre-service Elementary Grade Teachers
Original Research
Individual innovativeness, as applied among teachers who are agents of change and innovations, centers the idea of being adaptive and adoptive to radical changes through risk-taking. Innovativeness is the teachers’ tendency to adapt and adopt innovations earlier than other members of their niche, in particular, and the society, in general. This study is designed to determine the individual innovativeness of pre-service elementary grade teachers as a basis in proposing an intervention program to boost their morale of being an innovative professional teacher. Using 42 senior pre-service elementary grade teachers of the SY 2017-2018 under Descriptive-Comparative Research Design, the following are known: (1) The respondents were late majority innovative with a general index of 55.70, interpreted as lowly innovative (late majority); (2)Males had higher index than their female counterparts although the mean difference of .50 is almost negligible – both males and females fall in the index range for late majority innovative; (3) The age group of 21-22 had the highest index than their 23 and above and 19-20 age group-counterparts although the mean differences of .08 and 1.50, respectively, are almost negligible – all age groups fall in the index range for late majority innovative; and (4)The Ilocanos had the highest index when compared to their Ifugao/Igorot and other ethno-linguistic group-counterparts although the mean differences of 1.63 and 1.38, respectively, are almost negligible – all ethnicity groups fall in the index range for late majority innovative.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 617-620. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-6
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
5130 Views2288 Downloads2 Likes
Metaphoric Perceptions of High School Students about Functions
Original Research
This research was aimed to indicate how high school students use metaphors to think about math “functions”. A total of 405 students were asked to complete the phrase, “Function is like..…. because……” Students were given sheets and asked to write their thoughts while focusing on one metaphor. The data from this research was analyzed through a content analysis method. The metaphors were determined, classified and categorized. A total of 149 valid metaphors were identified and classified under eight different categories. The research results indicated that more than half of the students think that function is a difficult concept, some students found the concepts of polynomial and function similar to each other, and some expressed that they found the subject of function easy and enjoyed solving problems related to functions.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 611-616. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-5
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4430 Views1256 Downloads2 Likes
Mathematics Metacognitive Skills of Papua’s Students in Solving Mathematics Problems
Original Research
This research focuses on the analysis of mathematics metacognitive skills of Papua’s students in School of Indonesian Children (SIC) in solving mathematics learning problems. The research was conducted to provide a good quality education for Papuan students, so the research start the research from the metacognitive skills especially in mathematics. The respondents of the research are 6 students from grade VII of SIC. Those respondents are represent of higher mathematical ability, medium mathematical ability, and lower mathematical ability. The research used descriptive qualitative research method. Data collection procedures used in this research was in-depth interview and participant observation as well as documents related to metacognitive process in solving the problems in learning mathematics. The in-depth interview was with the respondents, the Principal, the mathematical teacher and the Character Building teacher. For documents related to metacognitive process in solving the problems in learning mathematics such as the result national exam in elementary, the result daily test of math, the result of quiz or homework. In general, the students in Papua were lack of mathematics metacognitive ability such as, lack of cognitive knowledge and cognitive regulation, sometimes they cannot perform the activities that reflects conscious metacognitive such as mathematics problem solving. The research result indicates that the structure metacognitive ability of students in Papua influences their problem solving ability in learning mathematics. This metacognitive ability is also influenced by the fact that it becomes their characteristics background as respondents from Papua.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 602-610. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-4
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
5637 Views2207 Downloads
Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Comprehension of Electrochemistry Concepts through Collaborative Teaching Strategy
Original Research
This paper reports on a study to determine the effectiveness of collaborative teaching on physical sciences students' comprehension of electrochemistry in the Ximhungwe circuit of the Bohlabela district in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design of the teaching strategy draws upon theoretical insights into perspectives of social constructivism and empirical studies to improve upon the teaching of the main topic, specifically galvanic cells, electrolytic cells and electrode potentials. In addition, the effect of collaboration as a teaching strategy on students’ perception of their chemistry classroom environment was also investigated. A sample of 90 grade 12 physical sciences students from four intact public schools was conveniently selected to participate in the study. Students were given electrochemistry concept test (ECT) as well as chemistry classroom environment questionnaire (CCEQ) as pre-test and post-test. One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) conducted showed that students taught using collaboration had significantly better acquisition of scientific conceptions related to electrochemistry than students taught using lecture method. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation also revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between achievement and students’ perception of their chemistry classroom environment. However, ANCOVA and ANOVA results indicated that there was no significant contribution of students’ perception of their chemistry classroom environment to their comprehension of electrochemistry concepts. This study provides statistical evidence on the importance of meaningful learning combined with social process to improve students’ understanding of electrochemistry.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 596-601. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-3
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
6422 Views2582 Downloads2 Likes
Identification of Criteria for Assessing the Quality of Research
Original Research
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of identification of criteria which measure the quality of research. Assessment of the quality of research is an important issue in the academic community. Time to time some criteria of quality of research have been given by different authors but an adequate or appropriate existing scale to assess the quality of research is still lacking. This paper presents a systematic process employed to develop a scale for assessing the quality of research. Reliability and validity of the tool have also been reported.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 592-595. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-2
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
5550 Views1468 Downloads
Internet Capacity of Higher Education and Research Institutes in Africa: The Need for National Research Education Network
Original Research
Higher Education Institutions especially Universities have for all time been identified as the space for generating knowledge through research. Unfortunately, for many African countries, higher education had witnessed a long period of relative neglect and stagnation. Many higher Education Institutions, especially Universities in Africa, are burdened with a myriad of problems to the extent that they have little time and resources for effective research. Research as connoted in this article refers to independent intellectual enquiry into diverse disciplines and areas, and which leads to the creation of new and significant knowledge. So far, Google Apps for Education is now available to hundreds of thousands of students and university faculty in over 20 African universities, including University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Benson Idahosa University, Covenant University and University of Lagos. By participating in the program, Nigerian universities have access to Google Apps for Education, a free suite of hosted email and collaboration applications exclusively for schools.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 586-591. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-1
Pub. Date: May 24, 2018
4234 Views1303 Downloads1 Likes