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Volume 6, Issue 4

Mental Health Literacy among University Students
Original Research
Background: Increasing cases of mental disorders is an alarming situation in the developing countries like India. It needs a careful and serious intervention on the part of government as well as professional psychiatric social worker. The proposed study aims to measure the mental health literacy among the university students. Methods: The survey was conducted among the students of one of the Central Universities of India i.e. Central University of Tamil Nadu Thiruvarur India. The study was based on the random sampling with a sample size of 40. Vignette of a person with depression were given as an example followed by questions. Data were analyzed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: Only 32.5% respondents were clearly identified the vignette as a case of depression and most of the respondents (47.5%) were classified the vignette as mental/psychological problem. Marital separation or divorce is most depression contributing factors has been found from the study. Current survey also revealed that non-pharmacological treatment is more beneficial than pharmacological treatment of mental disorder. Conclusion: Result suggested that, there is an immediate action required to improve the knowledge about mental health among the university students. The results have important implications for identification, prevention of mental health problems and improve mental health literacy among the students. Orientation on mental health is required to improve their basic knowledge on this issue.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 365-369. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-11
Pub. Date: April 19, 2018
5073 Views1559 Downloads
Social Isolation in Relation to Internet Usage and Stream of Study of Under Graduate Students
Original Research
Internet has undeniable role in people’s life and misuse of it may cause several problems. The present study has investigated the effect of internet usage on social isolation of under graduate students. Stratified random sampling techniques were used. 257 under graduate students studying at different college affiliated to Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia, W.B., India were selected as sample. Social isolation questionnaire and internet usage scale were used to gather data from the samples. The data thus collected were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 17). The results indicate that high internet user are more socially isolated than that of average and low internet user whereas no significant difference exist on internet usage between humanities and science under graduate students. Pearson co-efficient of correlation between internet usage and social isolation is found to 0.326 indicating a positive relationship between the variables.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 361-364. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-10
Pub. Date: April 17, 2018
6081 Views1609 Downloads
Differential Effects of Selected Psychotherapeutic Interventions on Procrastination Reduction and Improved Mathematics Achievement among Low Achieving Students
Original Research
This study investigated the differential effects of selected psychotherapeutic interventions on procrastination reduction and improved mathematics achievement among low achieving students in Enugu State. Quasi-experimental, Pre-test, post-test, control group, research design was adopted. A purposive sampling was used to select a sample of n=36 Senior Secondary School One (SS1) students both male and female. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups ¡°A,¡± ¡°B¡± and ¡°C¡±. Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) interventions were used for the study. The treatment with CBT was applied to group ¡°A¡± for 15 weeks while SFBT was applied to group ¡°B¡± for 8 weeks. The instruments used include, Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students (PASS), Teacher Made Mathematics Diagnostic Test (TMMDT) and Teacher Made Mathematics Achievement Test (TMMAT). They were validated and reliability tested. Their correlation scores were, .900, .816 and .868 for the three instruments respectively. The ANCOVA result shows that F(2,32)=33.44, p=001 and a differential effects of CBT and SFBT between groups. The result showed that SFBT had more effects on procrastination reduction and also a significant difference in mathematics improvement of the students in CBT and SFBT experimental groups from pre-test and post-test scores, is rejected both at .05 and .01 levels of significance. From the study we conclude that CBT and SFBT interventions are effective on procrastination reduction and improved mathematics achievement among low achieving student but there is no gender effect. We recommend that psychotherapeutic interventions should be used to improve academic achievement in general.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 354-360. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-9
Pub. Date: April 14, 2018
5895 Views2364 Downloads
The Influence of Gender on the Teachers' Degree of Organizational Commitment in Arab Schools in Israel
Original Research
The current study aimed to identify the impact of gender on the degree of the organizational commitment among the Arab schools' teachers in Israel. The study sample consisted of (250) male and female teachers in the Arab schools in Israel; to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the analytical, descriptive approach where he prepared a questionnaire as a tool for data collection from the members of the study sample. After conducting the appropriate statistical methods, the researcher in this study concluded the following results: there is a very great degree in the level of the organizational commitment among the teachers in the Arab schools in Israel, there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (a=0.05) for the degree of the level of the organizational commitment among the teachers in the Arab schools in Israel from their perspective according to the impact of gender, According to the results, the study recommended the need to maintain and strengthen this degree through continuing and preserving this status and conducting studies on the organizational commitment and its relationship to other demographic variables, such as the educational level, the educational stage, and the type of school.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 349-353. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-8
Pub. Date: April 14, 2018
4913 Views1693 Downloads
Effect of Educational Activity in Improving Knowledge Related to Infection Control among Recently Graduated Medical Students
Original Research
A significant number of patients acquired health care associated infections worldwide, and this has devastating effect on both the patient and the health system. Although they disseminated easily between patients through health-care workers contaminated hands, they are preventable infections. Hand hygiene including hand washing and alcohol based hand rub is the most effective method of prevention. We aimed, in this study, to evaluate the effect of educational activity in improving participants' knowledge about infection control. Ninety seven recent medical graduates with a mean age of 23.8 years attended workshop that included both lectures and practical sessions regarding various aspects of infection control. Hand hygiene was practiced in one station according to WHO guidelines, and was emphasized in all stations as a fundamental pre-requisite. WHO’s “Hand Hygiene Knowledge Questionnaire” was used to assess the knowledge both before and after the educational session. Data was analyzed using SPSS statistics version 22, and McNemar test was used to compare participant's knowledge pre and post session. The majority (61.9%) of them did not receive formal training in hand hygiene. The knowledge about hand hygiene improved considerably after the workshop, this is reflected by a significant pvalue (< 0.05) in 12 out of 24 knowledge related items tested (50%). Adding more clinical scenarios to stress on the practice of infection control measures contributed well to the effectiveness of the workshop in improving the knowledge. In conclusion, conduction of educational sessions that include simulated activity can be very useful to bridge the knowledge gap, as well as carrying out continuous feedback and analysis of outcome to improve the quality of educational activity.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 344-348. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-7
Pub. Date: April 13, 2018
4720 Views1934 Downloads
Contemporary Islamic Education in Nigeria from the Rear View Mirror
Original Research
The three known systems of education existing in Nigeria are the traditional/indigenous, Islamic and formal western education systems. The thrust of this paper therefore, is a retrospective examination of Islamic education system in Nigeria and its historical transformations. Reflecting on the past is like using a rear mirror to view what are the contemporary characteristics of Islamic education in Nigeria. Therefore, concepts associated with the subject matter were clarified, correcting the general misconceptions about the position of Islam on the Muslims’ quest for knowledge. This is a qualitative study, hence the use of historical research method which relied heavily on both primary and secondary sources of data. The sources were also subjected to historical evaluation that focuses on the internal and external criticisms to establish the genuineness and authenticity of the two sources. The study ultimately analysed the data historically, adopting a content analysis that produced critical and contemporary submission about the then, the contemporary and the future prospect of Islamic education in Nigeria and among the Muslims. The findings revealed that both the Qur’an and Hadith which are the two major scriptures in Islam provided justification and clear acceptance of modern education among the Nigerian Muslims. The study further portrayed the efforts of individuals and Islamic organisations in promoting modern education amongst Muslims and in many diverse ways; not limited to establishment of institutions at all levels. Attention was accorded girls’ participation in modern education and compensatory educational opportunity, through Non-Formal education programmes. Some suggestions were made, calling on the stakeholders to redouble their efforts and do everything to address the branding of Islam as being violent; by embracing peace which Islam is known for and using education as an instrument to reclaim the glory of Islam as people or architect of modern knowledge in the global history.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 329-343. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-6
Pub. Date: April 04, 2018
9751 Views2496 Downloads
Exploration of the Motivation Factors and Self-regulation, Determinant of the Communications Strategies of the Players in a Competitive Situation (Teaching of Futsal in the School in Tunisia)
Original Research
Learning is a complex process involving the interaction of many factors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the motivational factors and learning of communications strategies are determinants of the anxiety of the players in learning situations. The subscales for motivation examined in this study of intrinsic and extrinsic orientation, the value of the task, and the control of learning determines efficacy for learning. While the subscales learning strategies are repetition, the Organization, critical thinking, self-regulation, time and management of the environment, the regulation of effort, and group learning. The study group was composed of 24 students practicing the Futsal in a cycle of learning in high school. We found motivation factors that players and learning strategies are significant predictors of their motivations. The results are useful for educators in the areas of the teaching of physical and sports activities. Thus the proposed model will become a useful reference for other investigations of factors affecting motivation and communications during the competitive situations. So learning during competitive situations causes you he anxiety among the learners?
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 324-328. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-5
Pub. Date: April 04, 2018
7111 Views2700 Downloads
Improving the Ability of Creative Thinking Mathematically and Self-Confidence Student through Application Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) Review from Student Gender
Original Research
The purpose of this research was to determine: improving the ability of mathematical and self-confidence of students of class X of SMA Negeri 1 Barus taught by Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs), and to view whether there was interaction between learning with student's gender to the ability ofCreative Thinking Mathematically and student self-confidence. This type of research was a quasi-experiment research. The population in this study was all students of SMA Negeri 1 Barus. The sample in this research were 32 students of X-1 class as experiment class and 32 students of class X-2 as control class through purposive sampling method.The data in this research were analyzed by using ANAVA 2 Path. The validation result on the test of creative thinking ability got the significance value 0,82, meanwhile the test reliability value got the result 0,87. The results obtained: (1) Increased ability of creative thinking mathematically and self-confidence of students who gained learning Eliciting Activities Model (MEAs) was higher than the ability to think creatively mathematically and self-confidencestudents who obtained conventional learning; (2) There was no interaction between learning and gender of students towards the improvement of the ability of creative thinking mathematically and student self-confidence.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 319-323. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-4
Pub. Date: April 04, 2018
6595 Views2742 Downloads2 Likes
On Application of Neural Networks' Modeling for Analytical Comparative Study between Two Optimally Selected Made Decisions by Ant Colony Systems
Original Research
This piece of research presents a comparative analytical study for two diversified, and challenging issues regarding decisions made by Ant Colony Systems. The presented comparative study considers two swarm intelligent collective decisions, which originated from two diverse, and interactive ACS lifestyles with the environment they are living in. By more details, this article introduces the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) modeling considered for analogical comparative analysis and evaluation of two optimal selectivity decisions performed due to two competitive, dynamical, and interactive environmental conditions as follows. Firstly, the decisional issue concerned with optimal selectivity of collective decision made for increasing the efficiency of Ant Colony's foraging process by optimally reaching the best selected food source. However, the second decision The second issue is observed while ant insects are famous for their elaborate nest architecture; less well-known is their skill at moving from one nest site to another. Some, like army ants, move so often that they make no permanent structure, bivouacking instead in simple natural shelters. When an ant was tethered inside an unfamiliar nest site location, and unable to move freely, it is capable to release an alarming pheromone from its mandibular gland that signaled other ants to reject this nest site as to avoid presumable danger. Interestingly, the presented realistic simulation of (ANNS) behavioral learning paradigms results in the analogy between number of neurons and number of ant mates in ant colony systems. Furthermore, realistic ANN modeling results in the analogy between the intelligent behavioral performance of two ACS versus the performance of two diverse ANN learning paradigms.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 308-318. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-3
Pub. Date: March 29, 2018
13434 Views2991 Downloads
Scientific Inquiry-Based Teaching Practices as Perceived by Science Teachers
Original Research
The present study aimed to identify the nature of science teachers' practice of scientific inquiry-based teaching methods at public schools at Najran region in Saudi Arabia. A sample of (156) participants, among which were (84) male teachers and (72) female teachers, was randomly selected out of all teachers enrolled in teaching science at Najran region schools. A study instrument, i.e. questionnaire specific for scientific inquiry-based teaching methods, was applied to all participants. Findings showed that male science teachers usually practice scientific inquiry-based teaching methods once a month whereas responses of female science teachers indicated that they practice inquiry-based methods twice a month. Findings also revealed that most male teachers practice some of the inquiry aspects nearly once a week while female teachers do so twice a week. In light of these findings, the present study stressed the need to reconsider and revise the preparation programs for science teachers at all cycles of public education to meet the requirements of the new science curricula that consider inquiry as one of their main components.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 297-307. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-2
Pub. Date: March 29, 2018
7355 Views2853 Downloads2 Likes
Exploring the Access and Equity dimensions of Quality Education in the context of SDGs Lessons from DFID’s Education Sector Support Programme in Nigeria
Original Research
This paper aims to explore the nexus between quality learning at the primary level of education, access and equity. A stratified sampling design was used. The survey covered primary schools in the six ESSPIN states-Enugu, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano and Lagos. The sampling frame was compiled using the annual school census (ASC) with stratification by ESSPIN phases and whether or not the schools had participated in an earlier attempt to measure learning outcomes. Teachers were randomly sampled within selected schools in the survey. Teachers within each school were sampled from the population present in the school on the day of the survey visit and from those teaching grades 1–6 in the present term, using the school's teacher attendance register. Pupils were sampled from the pupil registers for grade 2 and 4 classes. The research confirmed that ESSPIN schools are performing better than the control schools on inclusiveness, spatial inclusion, and children's inclusiveness. There are evidences that the poorest children are benefiting disproportionately from ESSPIN, and that ESSPIN schools have smaller wealth disparities than non-ESSPIN ones. Disparities in pupil's learning outcomes in rural vis-à-vis urban schools were significant. Similarly, pupils from 'poorer' backgrounds performed starkly worse than others.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(4), 288-296. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-4-1
Pub. Date: March 29, 2018
5211 Views1586 Downloads