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Volume 6, Issue 3

The Effects of DRA and DR-TA Methods on Students’ Reading Comprehension for State Islamic Senior High School
Original Research
The aim of this study is to investigate the comparison between the use of Directed Reading Activity (DRA) and Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DR-TA) methods on students’ reading comprehension. The research design was a quasi-experimental study by comparing two strategies of two experimental groups and one control group pretest - posttest design. It involved 94 participants that consisted of two experimental groups and one control group of the students of State Islamic Senior High School (MAN) Pekanbaru of Riau province. Three research questions and nine hypotheses were posed in this study in order to find out the significant difference between DRA and DR-TA methods on students’ reading comprehension. Pretest and posttest were administered in this study and independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test were used to analyze the data. The research finding showed that there was no significant difference of post-test mean scores between the experimental class 1 using DRA method and the experimental class 2 using DR-TA method on students’ reading comprehension. DRA method contributed the effect of improvement on students’ reading comprehension 76% while DR-TA contributed 72%, and on the other hand the control class contributed 49%. At last, it can make an inference that both DRA and DR-TA methods can be applied in teaching reading comprehension especially at State Islamic Senior High School Pekanbaru of Riau province, and generally in Senior high school level in Indonesia.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 281-287. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-16
Pub. Date: March 23, 2018
6244 Views1555 Downloads
Improving Interest and Performance in Organic Chemistry Pedagogy by Incooperating Animations
Original Research
Chemistry curricula incorporate many abstract concepts that are important but difficult for students to understand. Educational researchers have recently begun to concentrate on the development of a wide variety of visualization tools and novel pedagogies to aid students in science learning at all levels. This study used the Roger Frost organic animation package to ascertain the impact of interactive computer visualization (ICV) in the teaching of organic chemistry at the Nigeria Certificate in Education and Degree levels. It adopted a quasi-experimental research design and used Structured Personal Data Questionnaire (SPDQ) and Semester Result (SR) for data collection. A mobile virtual classroom was created and used throughout the study. The students identified mechanism of reactions, cycloaddition reactions, synthesis of proteins and certain aspects of IUPAC nomenclature as challenging areas in their study of organic chemistry. After the three months teaching period using the organic simulation program, results from evaluating the students showed that interest and confidence in the selection and answering of questions from topics taught using ICV improved, the mean performances of the students almost doubled when ICV was introduced in the teaching program, a mean value of 48.20 out of 60 was obtained which indicated that the animated teaching was effective to a high extent and a general enhancement of the interest of students in the study of organic chemistry. The researchers therefore recommended that teaching of organic chemistry should be enriched with relevant illustrations, organic chemistry text books should be sold with CDs having computer simulations of organic reaction mechanisms for better appreciation. Virtual chemistry room for computer assisted instructions should be included in the design of chemistry laboratory to enhance instructional delivery using the 21st century pedagogy. Computational chemistry should be included in the university chemistry curriculum. Also basic computer knowledge by academic staff should be emphasized to enable them cope with the proposed digitalization of the course.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 277-280. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-15
Pub. Date: March 23, 2018
6969 Views3063 Downloads1 Likes
Prior Knowledge, Sex and Students' Attitude towards Statistics: A Study on Postgraduate Education Students
Original Research
A vast range of studies for undergraduate students showed that, students have different attitudes towards statistics according to their sex and prior knowledge of statistics. In this study, the researcher tried to find out postgraduate students' attitudes towards statistics according to sex and level of prior experience of statistics. Two different groups of students from two different postgraduate degrees were chosen as a sample of the study. SATS-28 tool was used as an instrument. The study reveals that, the attitudes of postgraduate students towards statistics significantly differed by their sex and prior knowledge. The researcher also found a poor association between value and difficulty domain of SATS- 28 in this study. As a recommendation for future study, the research suggested to include more levels in prior experience variable to see in which stage the students actually assimilate their attitude towards statistics.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 270-276. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-14
Pub. Date: March 23, 2018
5550 Views1955 Downloads
Academic Performance of Students: the Effect of Class Room Level Factors and Private Tutoring
Original Research
Increased participation in private tutoring intended towards the high academic performance has been perceived enormously worldwide. However, to date literature is indecisive about the effect of private tutoring on students’ academic performance. This study directed to observe the impact of private tutoring on students’ academic performance in Sri Lanka. Data was collected from a stratified systematic random sample of 600 children were in Year 7 – 11 and their parents through a questionnaire survey. It was found that private tutoring has positive effect on students’ academic performance while net impact of private tutoring on student’s academic performance is reduced in magnitude when parental education, economic status and especially the effect self leaning hours is concerned. Hence, the study concludes that rather than focusing on private tutoring, efforts to improve self learning strategies that enhance socio-cultural connectedness and human focus can lead to achieve wider goals of education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 262-269. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-13
Pub. Date: March 23, 2018
6733 Views2667 Downloads2 Likes
Development of Historical Learning Resources Based on Novel
Original Research
The purpose of this research is to develop historical learning resource based on novel for students of SMA Negeri 12 Tangerang Selatan. This research uses modification of two models, namely development model based on Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) and Instructional Development Model (MPI) that consist of three main stages: 1) preliminary research, 2) planning and development, and 3) evaluation and revisions. The results show that historical learning can be done by using novel based learning sources. This research provides one solution in teaching history through the use of novel-based learning resources that will also attract the attention of learners.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 258-261. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-12
Pub. Date: March 19, 2018
4701 Views2057 Downloads
Development, Standardization and Application of Chemistry Achievement Test Using the One-Parameter Logistic Model (1-Plm) of Item Response Theory (Irt)
Original Research
This study was centered on the Development, Standardization and Application of Chemistry Achievement Test using the One-Parameter Logistic Model of Item Response Theory. Eight research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The research design was instrumentation research. The Researcher developed an instrument titled “OKUKINS Chemistry Achievement Test (OKUKINS CAT) consisting of 80 items. A proportional stratified random sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 200 students from a population of 19,082 Senior Secondary School Two (SS II) students from Delta Central Senatorial District of Delta State. The sample was further divided into two equal parts (set A and set B) representing sample A and B respectively while the original sample represent sample O. The OKUKINS CAT yielded favourable statistics under the One-Parameter Logistic Model (1-PLM) with regards to the difficulty (b) parameters and ability estimates. Analyses done using the Xcalibre 4.2 software confirmed suitable indices of b parameters as prescribed by the Xcalibre manual. Using sample O, b parameters ranged from -2.417 to +2.834. Using sample A, b parameters ranged from -2.115 to +2.293. Using sample B, the b parameters ranged from -2.138 to +2.960. The validity of the instrument was estimated using the fit statistics. The results indicated perfect fit of One-Parameter Logistic Model ( 1-PLM). Using sample O, 74 items out of the 80 items of the OKUKINS CAT fitted the 1-PLM. Using sample A, 79 items out of the 80 items of the OKUKINS CAT fitted the 1-PLM. Using sample B, all the 80 items which constitute the OKUKINS CAT fitted the 1-PLM. The study also revealed that gender has no significant influence on academic achievement in chemistry. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that, all examination bodies such as JAMB, WAEC, NECO and NABTEB should re-visit and review their test items using IRT models since this has been recommended by the International Testing Commission.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 238-257. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-11
Pub. Date: March 19, 2018
9453 Views2234 Downloads1 Likes
Development of Local Historical Learning Resources South Sulawesi Based on Character Education in Department of Historical Education Faculty of Social Science at State University of Makassar
Original Research
The purpose of this research is to develop a local history based on learning resource for character education. This study uses an Instructional Development Model (MPI) consisting of eight stages, namely needs analysis, instructional analysis, identification of learners characteristics, determining basic competencies, developing syllabus and SAP, designing assessment systems, developing learning modules, and formative evaluation implementation. The results of preliminary research indicate that the value of local character is not integrated in the learning process in History Education Program so that it needs to be made a learning resource which can be a reference in learning local history that students can identify, integrate and apply the character values in campus life as well as in social life. Sources of learning local history can increase the sense of care and interest in the regional domain of students. Local history can be an effective tool to stimulate a deeper interest and understanding of demand-oriented teaching. Events with the presence of prominent figures in historical events are expected to inspire students in the form of personal character because Holt's study of history in Frost not only enhances the understanding of the past, but also the understanding of future challenges [1].
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 220-237. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-10
Pub. Date: March 17, 2018
7188 Views2344 Downloads1 Likes
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT): An Intervention Strategy for Counselling Parents of Children Living with Disability
Original Research
The high rates of reported emotional dysfunctions among parents of children living with developmental disability cannot be over emphasized. Application of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) has been reported to be a useful counselling strategy to reduce strong negative emotions and promote more effective parents’ emotional functioning state which in turn helps to increase children’s positive behaviour and learning. By adopting and critically examining the theoretical claims of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), particularly the ABC model as diagnostic and intervening tool, this position paper upholds the application of REBT as an essential counseling tool for parents of children with special needs.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 214-219. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-9
Pub. Date: March 15, 2018
6417 Views2024 Downloads
Education in the 21st Century: Acquisition and Application of Knowledge versus Certificate
Original Research
Education has always been an important factor that brings about national development in human capital, science and technology. The central goal of education is to develop citizens to be self-reliant with a critical thinking ability, decision making and source of solution to life problems while applying the knowledge acquired. This paper examines education in the 21st Century with a specific focus on acquisition and application of knowledge versus certificate. Literature was reviewed in the area under examination and the work revealed that the world is changing as a result of emerging technological and professional trends. This has resulted in the need to down play on the celebrated certificate and encourage the application of knowledge orientation to keep abreast of the 21st century demands of the society. The paper emphasizes the importance of pragmatic knowledge over certification, the skills, abilities and learning dispositions that have been identified as being required for success by educators, business leaders, academics, and governmental agencies in organizations and society. It concludes by giving clues on the creation of niche, that is, individuals with their own brand in career and business. This will therefore relegate certificate consciousness and increase the relevance of knowledge application for creativity, innovation and invention.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 210-213. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-8
Pub. Date: March 15, 2018
4043 Views1390 Downloads
Field Teaching Practicum Problems Experienced by Science and Mathematics Students and Their Attitudes toward Teaching Profession at Najran University
Original Research
The current study aims to investigate the problems of field practicum at the College of Science and Arts at Najran University from science and mathematics students' perspective and to measure their attitudes toward teaching profession. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire of field teaching practicum problems and a scale of student teachers' attitudes toward teaching profession were prepared. The sample consisted of (123) male and female students of science and mathematics departments enrolled in the field practicum course. The study concluded that during field training, students face (21) problems distributed to four domains: cooperating school administration, academic supervisor, teaching skills of trainee student, and the trainee student’s personality. There is a statistically significant difference in the problems of cooperating school administration and teaching skills due to gender variable in favor of female students. There is a statistically significant difference in the problems of cooperating school administration due to specialization variable in favor of mathematics students. There is no statistically significant difference due to specialization variable in the other domains and problems as a whole. There is no statistically significant difference in the problems facing students due to the cumulative average variable. The sample responses to the attitude scale toward teaching profession reach an average agreement of (3.75), which indicates that the sample has positive attitudes toward teaching profession.There is no statistically significant difference on the attitude scale toward teaching profession as a whole or its domains due to gender or cumulative average variables. There is a statistically significant difference in the responses of the sample to the attitude scale toward teaching profession due to specialization variable in favor of science specialization.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 201-209. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-7
Pub. Date: March 14, 2018
6466 Views2384 Downloads
Self-Disclosure among Men and Women of Arab Descent: Implications for Group-Based Health Education
Original Research
Arab American gender norms may affect female participation in group-delivered health education settings. Our objective was to examine gender-specific participation in Arab American group interactions. This study was conducted to inform the necessity of gender-specific groups in a subsequent diabetes prevention intervention. Self-identified Arabs or Arab Americans ≥ 30 years and without diabetes were randomly recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to male-only, female-only, or mixed-gender focus groups. A trained Arabic-speaking moderator facilitated 90-minute sessions using a standardized guide. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A self-disclosure survey immediately followed sessions. Turn-taking, verbosity, and survey responses were compared between males and females in gender-specific and mixed-gender group settings. Twenty-nine individuals participated: male-only (8), female-only (12), and mixed-gender (9). Males took more turns and spoke with more utterances than females during gender-specific and mixed-gender groups. Fewer men reported keeping comments to themselves relative to women. Group-formatted educational interventions in Arab Americans should take self-disclosure into consideration and efforts should be made to identify females who prefer participating in a gender-specific group.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 196-200. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-6
Pub. Date: March 14, 2018
6585 Views3051 Downloads
Determining the Appropriate Blend of Blended Learning: A Formative Research in the Context of Spada-Indonesia
Original Research
Deciding appropriate blend for certain learning outcomes is very crucial in designing an effective blended learning. Blended learning is not just simply combining face-to-face learning with online learning. The challenge is to determine the most appropriate blended learning strategies to achieve a series of desired learning outcomes. Blended learning designers utilize a model of criteria as a guideline to answer to this challenge. This research was aimed to develop a proposed model of criteria for determining the appropriate blended learning strategy. Hence, the research questions become: 1) Is the model created fitting a conceptual framework? and 2) Is the model created effective and implementable? Consequently, formative evaluation techniques were employed to answer these research questions, i.e. experts review, one-on-one evaluation, and field test. These methods were used to collect descriptive and formative data. This study was followed by 7 instructional designers and e-learning experts as well as 235 lecturers as respondents. Upon completing a series of formative evaluations, result of this study showed that the model created is conceptually fitting, effective and implementable as a lecturer’s guide in determining the appropriate blended learning strategy.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 188-195. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-5
Pub. Date: March 13, 2018
7779 Views2706 Downloads
Evaluation of Implementation of Standard Laboratory Midwifery Diploma III Program in Jakarta 2017
Original Research
Evaluation of the implementation of the Standard Laboratory Midwifery Diploma III Program is a study that aims to 1) find problems and laboratory gaps in the study area compared with existing standards. 2) provide inputs to improve the competence of prospective midwives. 3) provide recommendations to the institution to improve the laboratory to be more in line with the standards; and 4) provide recommendations to the Agency for Development and Empowerment of Human Resources Health for the improvement health provider. The ultimate goal is to determine if the standards require revision in order to leverage their use and facilitate their application, which will enhance the skills and competence of prospective midwives. Data were collected from respondents through interviews, observations, document review and records. From the analysis and interpretation of the data known the results showed that; institutions have formulated laboratory objectives with reference to the Laboratory Standards Diploma III Midwifery, and strategies in the application of standards are also met. However, laboratory personnel, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and programs implemented have not complied with the standards. This limitation is a discrepancy at the installation stage and disrupts the program implementation process so that it can be said that at the early stage of the process there is a discrepancy with a predetermined standard. At the product stage, the results of program implementation are in accordance with the standards.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 181-187. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-4
Pub. Date: March 12, 2018
3904 Views1155 Downloads1 Likes
Code-Switching: A Pedagogical Strategy in Bilingual Classrooms
Literature Review
This paper presents a critical review of research on the use of code-switching as an instructional strategy in the teaching and learning of foreign or second language in bilingual contexts. Necessitated by the emerging and existing body of negative criticisms about its interference with the target language acquisition, this library-based paper sets out to critically review the use of code-switching to fathom its support as a crucial teaching and learning tool for language instruction, particularly in English language teaching and learning environments. This paper takes a qualitative inquiry that draws arguments primarily from library documentation. It particularly draws inferences from various theoretical orientations and empirical evidence within the confines of second or foreign language acquisition underpinning the fundamental use of code-switching in foreign or second language classrooms. Specifically, the paper attempts to theoretically justify the utilization of code-switching particularly in relation to its rationales and functions and, most significantly, its pedagogical implications to the process of second or foreign language teaching and learning. It ends with some suggestions on how teachers should take advantage of its availability and consistently maximize its use in bilingual classrooms.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 175-180. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-3
Pub. Date: March 08, 2018
7061 Views2970 Downloads
The Immersive Virtual Reality: A Study in Three-dimensional Euclidean Space
Original Research
New technologies, since the eighties have dabbled in classroom education as a support tool in teaching activities. The learning problems in the discipline of mathematics faced by students at different educational levels are known. However, various investigations have shown favorable results in the appropriation of concepts if the methodology of work in the classroom is supported by means and materials that support the student to learn the mathematical contents, even autonomously, in an alternative learning environment [1,2]. This paper shows the results of a research whose objective was to generate and evaluate an instructional scenario for the learning of vector themes and three-dimensional space. Students, from the manipulation of physical and virtual objects (mediated by recognition of patterns and mixed reality), interact with mathematical concepts essential to understand the geometry of three-dimensional space and the interpretation of various figures such as solids and cylinders. This interaction promotes the extraction of the data necessary for the mathematical modeling of a contextualized phenomenon. For that, it was necessary to investigate on the one hand, the conceptual elements that take place in the student's processes in the appropriation of mathematical concepts and on the other, the effects that the instructional design produces based on the manipulation of physical and virtual objects on the learning of the mentioned mathematical concepts. The research shows, first of all, the feasibility of introducing virtual scenarios for the manipulation of mathematical objects in the classroom as well as the promotion of the development of didactic materials mediated by new technologies for the learning of mathematics. Core point for strengthening the construction of mathematical knowledge of students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 170-174. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-2
Pub. Date: March 08, 2018
6159 Views1930 Downloads1 Likes
Influence of School Based Policies on Internal Efficiency in Public Day Secondary Schools in Nyatike Sub County, Kenya
Original Research
Policies formed at the school level have tended to interfere with national agenda universal schooling in many countries of the world. A study therefore was carried out on the influence of school-based policies on internal efficiency in public day secondary schools in Nyatike Sub County, Kenya. The study was guided by three objectives; students’ grade to grade promotion policy, schools time management policy and school time tabling. The design employed in this study was descriptive survey. The researcher targeted all 52 secondary schools in Nyatike sub-county. Stratified random sampling was used to arrive at the chosen samples for the study. The school-based policies analyzed were found to affect the internal efficiency in education in public secondary schools. The government’s policy of no repetition, was found be flowed by all the schools as they had their own students’ grade to grade promotion policy based on students’ performance in internal examinations. All schools visited were found to be using exams for promotions. Ninety point zero three percent of the students responded that rules put by schools on student grade to grade affects their wellbeing and stay in school. Sixty one point five three percent of the students sampled believed student grade to grade policy has an impact on repetition of students. On time management policy, a majority of the schools did not have strategic plans to guide the operations in schools. However, the schools had timetables as required by the ministry of education. No effort was put in place to assist weak students in bettering in their academics to meet the set school targets for promotion. In conclusion the internal school policies on grade to grade promotion have affected greatly the internal efficiency in education in Nyatike sub-county. The inefficiency index of 1.3 was found. There is poor implantation of time management policy and there is a lot of waste of time in the afternoons in the sub-county. It is recommended that close monitoring be done by the sub-county director of education office on implementation of no student repetition policy.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 161-169. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-1
Pub. Date: March 07, 2018
7349 Views1848 Downloads