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Volume 6, Issue 10

Evaluating Secondary School Biology Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Grade 10 Learners’ Understanding of Respiration: Case of Chipata District, Zambia
Original Research
This study evaluated Secondary School Biology Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and Grade 10 learners’ understanding of Respiration. This was on the premise that effective PCK could help to improve learners’ conceptual understanding of respiration. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence backing the relationship between PCK and students’ understanding of respiration concepts. A total of 11 teachers and 84 grade 10 learners were drawn from six schools in Chipata district, Zambia. The teachers’ PCK was measured from lesson plans, lesson planning interviews and learners’ questionnaires while students’ understanding of respiration was measured using the Respiration Content Test. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS by computing means, standard deviations, t-tests, and F-tests while lesson planning interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim for further qualitative analysis. The results showed that the teachers demonstrated good pedagogical knowledge (M = 3.30, SD = 1.31) and content knowledge (M = 3.32, SD = 1.00) although their knowledge of students was poor (M = 2.05, SD = 1.20). The learners have a positive perception of teachers’ PCK although males have a higher positive perception that teachers meet their learning needs (M = 3.948, SD = 0.697) than females (M = 3.542, SD = 0.213);t(54) = 3.742, p< 0.001. Learners’ knowledge of respiration is good (M = 61.81%, SD = 37.74) although they generally had difficulties answering questions of higher order demand. The findings imply that teachers of biology need to consider learners’ prior knowledge and learning difficulties in their lessons in order to provide inclusive and equitable quality education. Policymakers and administrators should reinforce training programs aimed at enriching in-service teachers’ PCK. Future studies need to show how specific teaching methods can be used to help students overcome their learning difficulties and misconceptions about respiration.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1438-1444. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-15
Pub. Date: November 01, 2018
5379 Views1759 Downloads
Development of Learning Instrument Based on Scientific Learning to Improve Students' Mathematical Problem Solving and Self-Regulated Learning Ability at MTs. Sinar Islami Bingai
Original Research
This research aims to describe the valid, practical and effective learning instrument based on the scientific learning that has been developed and produce learning instrument for developing valid learning instrument based on a scientific learning to improve mathematical problem solving ability and self-regulated learning at MTs Sinar Islami Bingai. This research is a development research. The development model used is the 4-D model which consists of four stages: define, design, develop and disseminate. The research subject is a learning instrument of the discussion of one variable linear equations and inequalities. The development testing was carried out on class VII of MTs Sinar Islami Bingai. The first development testing is carried out in class VII-2 and The second development testing is carried out in class VII-1 MTs Sinar Islami Bingai. The results of obtained development are: (1) Learning instrument developed were valid; (2) The learning instrument developed practically were indicated by responses of validator who said that learning instrument could be used with little revision or without revision; (3) Effective learning instrument were indicated by classical student learning completeness that has been achieved, positive student response to the components of learning instrument and learning activities developed, and the ability of teachers to manage learning obtain an average good category score. Increased self-regulated learning reached an average of 79.09 in the first development testing and 82.35 in the second one.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1430-1437. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-14
Pub. Date: October 31, 2018
5013 Views1916 Downloads1 Likes
Traditional Religious Culture in the Spiritual Life of Ethnic Minorities in the Mountainous North of Vietnam Today
Original Research
Traditional religious culture is a constituent element of the national culture. Under specific historical conditions, traditonal religious culture has a great impact on people and society, contributing to the creation of special nuances for the spiritual life of humanity. The traditional religious culture of ethnic minorities in the mountainous north of Vietnam, that is reflected in various forms of relics, customs, traditions, ethics, performance, literature - art, scripts, festivals, etc. has been playing an important role in the spiritual life of people here, contributing to the unique cultural nuance of each ethnic group and the diversity of Vietnamese culture.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1421-1429. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-13
Pub. Date: October 31, 2018
4034 Views1738 Downloads4 Likes
The Effect of Guided Inquiry Learning Model Based on Deli Malay Culture Context towards Student’s Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability
Original Research
This intervention study focused on: (1) analyzing whether there is a significant effect of guided inquiry learning model based on Deli Malay culture context towards student’s mathematical critical thinking ability or not and (2) analyzing whether there is a significant interaction between learning model and prior mathematical ability towards student’s mathematical critical thinking ability or not. This study is a quasi experimental research that used mathematical critical thinking ability test. Population in this study are all students in SMPN 1 Tebing Tinggi Academic Year 2017/2018 and the samples are 32 students in class VIII-A taught by using guided inquiry learning model based on Deli Malay culture context and 32 students in class VIII-C taught by using expository learning. The data was analyzed by using Two Way Anova and found that: (1) there is a significant effect of guided inquiry learning model based on Deli Malay culture context towards student’s mathematical critical thinking ability and (2) there is no a significant interaction between learning model and prior mathematical ability towards student’s mathematical critical thinking ability.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1414-1420. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-12
Pub. Date: October 28, 2018
6469 Views2320 Downloads
The Effect of Integrated Batak-angkola Culture on Open-ended Approach to Mathematical Creative Thinking Skills of Middle Secondary School Students
Original Research
The purpose of this study was to: (1) analyze the effect of Batak-Angkola culture integration on Open-ended approach (BAC-OE) towards mathematical creative thinking skills (MCTS) of the students, (2) analyze the effect of initial mathematical abilities (IMA) on mathematical creative thinking skills, (3) find out whether there is an interaction between BAC-OE and IMA towards MCTS. The instrument used is the test of MCTS. Data analysis was carried out by two-way ANOVA. The results of the research show: (1) there is an effect of BAC-OE towards MCTS of the students, (2) there is an effect of IMA on MCTS of the students, (3) no interaction between BAC-OE and IMA towards MCTS.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1407-1413. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-11
Pub. Date: October 28, 2018
5718 Views1479 Downloads1 Likes
The Effect of Reflective Pedagogic Paradigm Approach toward Achievement on Chemical Equilibrium
Original Research
This study aimed to determine the effect of the application of reflective pedagogical paradigm approach (RPP) and contextual approach in learning when viewed from student achievement on chemical equilibrium material. This research was a quasi-experiment using posttest control group design only. The subjects of the study were 45 high school students from one of the private high schools in Yogyakarta. The sample was determined by cluster random sampling, one class as the experimental class using RPP approach to 22 students and one class as control class using contextual approach to 23 students. Methods of data collection were tests to measure the student achievement and reflection note to determine the quality of approach. Data analysis used quantitative descriptive and Anova. The result showed that there is a difference of application of paradigm of reflective pedagogy approach and contextual approach in learning in terms of student achievement with learning significance value of learning achievement smaller than alpha. Learning by using the RPP approach through student reflection gives a happy response, no difficulty in understanding the subject matter and the value that can be taken in the form of cooperation and thoroughness in action. students who study harder and supported from improving student learning outcomes, so that RPP approach can be applied in chemistry learning.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1403-1406. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-10
Pub. Date: October 28, 2018
3817 Views1477 Downloads
The Improving Mathematical Communication Ability and Students’ Self-Regulation Learning through Realistic Mathematical Approach Based on Batak Toba Culture
Original Research
This purpose of this research to know: (1) The improving of mathematical communication ability and students’ self regulated learning through realistic mathematics approach based on Batak Toba culture is higher than students who are given regular learning, (2) there is interaction between learning approach with initial ability of mathematic (KAM) in improvement of students mathematical communication ability and students’ self regulated learning. This research type is quasi experiment. This research was conducted at SMP N 2 Dolok Panribuan. The population in this study is all students of class VII. Based on the results of the analysis, the research results are obtained: (1) improving of mathematical communication ability and students’ self regulated learning through realistic mathematics approach based on Batak Toba culture is higher than students who are given regular learning, (2) there is no interaction between learning approach with initial ability of mathematic (KAM) in improvement of students mathematical communication ability and students’ self regulated learning. Recommended by the teachers can use realistic mathematics approach based Batak Toba culture by presenting issues related to local culture as an alternative learning.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1397-1402. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-9
Pub. Date: October 28, 2018
5012 Views1671 Downloads
Improvement of Teacher Competence and Professionalism and School Management Development in Indonesia
Original Research
The aim of this study is to find the results of training through the Teacher Learning Program conducted by the Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel, Ministry of Education and Culture, in 2016 as an effort to improve teacher’s competences and professionalism and then put forward alternatives that is needed. The research method used in this research is a field survey, with data and information acquired through interviews, focus group discussions, and documentation from relevant parties. The results of the study show that the implementation mechanism of the program is still not satisfied, both in improving the competence and professionalism of work and providing provisions to motivate themselves to continue professional development. Training still faces a number of weaknesses, both in terms of instructors / facilitators, training tools, availability and suitability of learning modules, strategic implementations, and others. Therefore, the implementation of training -- which has been renamed as the Pengembangan Keprofesian Berkelanjutan or Competence Profession Development (CPD) program in 2017 - then still requires improvements and revisions to achieve the expected goals and results. Beside of that, efforts to improve work competency and professionalism, and encourage sustainable teacher professional development, need to be accompanied by the development of school management to create a conducive school environment, especially related to: (1) enhancing the leadership capacity of the Principal, (2) developing cultures in schools that are strong, adaptive, and oriented to achievement and process, (3) developing work structures based on teams, (4) opening information needed by the team, (5) enhancing the role and participation of stakeholders, (6) developing the physical environment in school, and (7) developing a harmonious, intimate, empathic, respectful relationship between of the school community.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1388-1396. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-8
Pub. Date: October 28, 2018
4785 Views1546 Downloads
Effective Use of Original Materials in High School’s History-Teaching by Topic
Original Research
The use of original materials to teach history topics is one of the optimal methods that contribute to the renovation of teaching objectives, content, methods and testing and assessment. The original materials not only play a vital role in revitalizing the vivid past, but also create learning excitement, thinking orientation, and developing students’ competencies. To achieve these results, in teaching history topics, teachers should use original materials effectively to get started, raise issues, motivate students’ participation, and orient students’ learning; provide students with opportunities to "discover", explain, and debate about historical events and phenomena; and at the same time, use original materials to reinforce, review, assign assignments, and assess students’ cognitive performance.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1379-1387. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-7
Pub. Date: October 26, 2018
4677 Views1112 Downloads
Application of Performance Assessment in Competence Learning and Test in Beauty Program Vocational School, SMKN 3 Bogor
Original Research
This study aims to reveal the importance of implementing of performance assessments in Vocational School of Skin Beauty Skills competencies to improve the qualifications of graduates with professional certification. The research method used is qualitative research. Data obtained through student learning documents, and learning theory and practice of facial skin care and focus group discussion performance assessment in the learning process. The results of the study show that it is true and proven that the application of the performance assessment system carried out in the Learning Process of competency in treating facial skin is not problematic in vocational students in the Skin Beauty program, the achievement of competency learning is fulfilled. In the Competency Test to treat facial skin is not a problem for students Skin Beauty program conducted by the beauty professional certification body beauty, students can pass well and the results can improve the quality of these SMK graduates so that they obtain professional certification from National Professional Certification Agency.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1372-1378. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-6
Pub. Date: October 18, 2018
4470 Views1379 Downloads1 Likes
Situation of Organizing Musical Activities to Limit Stereotyping Behavior in 5-6 Year ASD Children at Special Education Centers in Hanoi, Vietnam
Original Research
This article aims to assess the current state of musical activity in limiting stereotypical behavior in 5- to 6-year-old ASD in some special education centers in Hanoi, Vietnam. A number of lessons for teachers in organizing musical activities for ASD children will be discussed. The results of theoretical and practical research indicate that: 1) stereotype behavior has a significant impact on play, learning and social participation in ASD children; 2) Music is the pathway to the emotional world of children, the appropriate use of music will help ASD children to reconcile emotions and reduce stereotyped stereotype; 3) Organizing music activities not only helps children to focus attention, helps children relax, increases calm, but also helps children improve interpersonal skills, group activities as well as language development. speech, body and behavior; 4) The process of organizing musical activities of teachers and parents for ASD children has not had a consistent, clear process as well as coordination among stakeholders has not really tight. Consequently, educators need to continue to research and propose appropriate measures and procedures for organizing appropriate music activities for teachers and parents, which is needed in young ASD intervention centers.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1365-1371. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-5
Pub. Date: October 18, 2018
4850 Views1809 Downloads2 Likes
Institutional Factors Associated with Faculty Participation in Research and Publication: A Case of Universities in Arusha City, Tanzania
Original Research
This study sought to establish factors associated with faculty participation in research and publication. It employed survey design with 97 faculty respondents from four universities. The questionnaire was validated through expert judgment and Cronbach’s Alpha of between 0.74 and 0.91 was established through pilot testing before the start of data collection. The study established that faculty members attend and present papers in research seminars, workshops and conferences. Gender and academic ranking, determined participation rates as males, lecturers and senior lecturers significantly participated more often than their female, Tutorial Assistant and Assistant Lecturer counterparts. The role of senior researchers is limited to encouraging juniors to publish without necessarily coaching them how to do it. Institutional support is non-existent due to lack of awareness of research policies and non-availability of material, moral and financial support. Finally, Institutional support positively influences mentorship and information centre quality. It is therefore recommended that institutional leaderships need to encourage faculty members to engage into book writing projects and editorial activities rather than confining themselves into journal article, book chapters and attendance in research conferences, seminars and workshops. Female educators, Tutorial Assistants and Assistant Lecturers should be empowered to increase rate of participation. Finally, institutional leaderships should create awareness of research policies to faculty members and extend material, moral and financial support to research and publication projects.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1356-1364. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-4
Pub. Date: October 16, 2018
4295 Views1297 Downloads1 Likes
Teachers’ Characteristics as Determinants of Their Attitude towards Continuous Assessment Practices
Original Research
The study investigated teachers’ characteristics as determinants of their attitude towards continuous assessment practices in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Four research questions and four corresponding hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 391 secondary school teachers was drawn from the population through proportionate stratified random sampling technique based on educational qualification, years of teaching experience and gender. An instrument titled Continuous Assessment Teacher’s Attitude Scale (CATAS) which was developed by the researcher was used for data collection. The CATAS was validated by experts in educational psychology, measurement and evaluation based on face and construct validities. The reliability of the instrument (CATAS) was established through Cronbach Alpha technique and the reliability coefficient obtained was 0.78. Data collected were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, t-test of independent and one-way analysis of variance. The results revealed that proportion of teachers with positive and negative attitude respectively toward continuous assessment practices differ significantly in favour of those with positive attitude; educational qualification and years of teaching experience are good determinants of teachers’ attitude toward continuous assessment practices while genders is not. Based on these results, recommendations were made including that teachers with negative attitude toward continuous assessment practices should be enlightened more on the importance of continuous assessment in schools.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1351-1355. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-3
Pub. Date: October 16, 2018
4468 Views1314 Downloads
Building and Using the Visual Channels under the Development of Experimental Capability for Students through the High School Organization in Chemistry
Original Research
Chemistry is the science of experimentation, so developing experimental capability (EC) for students through teaching chemistry is an important and indispensable issue. Depending on the level of the student, the facilities of the school, the teacher may choose different measures to develop the experimental capacity for the student. In this article, we have built a static channel system, animated channel system and apply some solutions using them in the form of problems such as: formation of new knowledge, practice consolidation knowledge, practice the experiments and extracurricular activities in organic chemistry in high school to contribute to the training and development of experimental capabilities for students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1344-1350. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-2
Pub. Date: October 15, 2018
4855 Views1193 Downloads1 Likes
An Effort to Improve Mathematical Problem Solving Ability of Middle Secondary School Students through Autograph-Assisted Mathematics Realistic Education Approach
Original Research
This study aims to investigate (1) the improvement of students' mathematical problem solving ability (MPSA) through Autograph-assisted realistic mathematics education approach (ARME), (2) The existence of the interaction between the learning approach and the initial mathematical ability (IMA) of the improvement of students MPSA, (3) the process of solving mathematical problems. The instrument used consisted of the MPSA test. Data were analyzed through two-way ANOVA. Before using ANOVA, homogeneity and normality are first tested. Based on the results of the analysis, the findings of the study are: (1) the improvement in MPSA of students in ARME class is higher than the improvement in MPSA of students in conventional class, (2) there is no interaction between learning approach with IMA in improving MPSA, (3) The process of solving mathematical problems that made by the students in ARME class is better than students in conventional class, that means students in the ARME class show more systematic and directed problem solving steps. Research findings recommend that the ARME approach be one of the learning approaches used in schools, especially to improve MPSA.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1338-1343. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-1
Pub. Date: October 12, 2018
5786 Views1980 Downloads