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Volume 5, Issue 4

Effects of Yoga in Health and Aging: A Knowledge-Based Descriptive Study of Health Educators in Universities of Nigeria
Original Research
Yoga, a mind-body practice, is a potentially promising physical activity that has positive effects in human health and aging. A complete knowledge of these effects remains a prerequisite for attaining optimum health and functional aging. The study determined the quality of knowledge of effects of yoga in health and aging as possessed by health educators in universities of Nigeria. The study was guided by five research questions and four null hypotheses. Relevant literature on the effects of yoga in health and aging was properly reviewed and documented. Using descriptive method, a total of 300 health educators was conveniently sampled and studied. Data collection was done using a four-point knowledge scale questionnaire. The descriptive statistics was employed for qualitative data analysis. The result showed that the quality of knowledge of effects of yoga in health and aging as possessed by health educators in universities of Nigeria was adequate. The study also showed that the quality of knowledge of the above phenomenon differed based on demographic variables of gender, location, years of working experiences and educational qualification. Statistically, it was found that significant differences exist between variables of gender and educational qualification while none existed on location and years of working experiences. In conclusion, the quality of knowledge possessed by health educators in diverse fields of health and aging promotion as well as lifestyle modification is indeed reflecting in all domains via: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. This however, defined the worth of the training, skills, exposures and professional competences as well as programmes and prospects put in place for their professional development.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 443-452. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-14
Pub. Date: May 10, 2017
5829 Views1642 Downloads
Neglected Diseases in Brazilian Biology Textbooks
Original Research
According to epidemiological and economic relevance, either by direct or indirect cost, six neglected diseases (ND) were elected by the Brazilian government as major research problems: dengue, tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. These diseases are presented in Brazilian schools basically with the help of textbooks that are evaluated, acquired and distributed freely in public schools by the National Textbook Program (PNLD). Thus, we investigated how these six diseases and their structural concepts were presented in the biology textbooks approved by PNLD 2012/13/14. The six selected diseases were found in almost every collection approved in the PNLD 2012/13/14, exceptions being tuberculosis and leprosy, and we found 30 problems out of 144 insertions. In this sense, we emphasize the need more rigorous evaluation processes in the textbooks so that the content can be understood as potentially significant material.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 438-442. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-13
Pub. Date: May 10, 2017
6906 Views2747 Downloads
Self-reported, House-Officer's Competency and Knowledge
Original Research
This study was conducted to assess the competency of fresh medical graduates in dealing with common emergency conditions. Graduates who received structured training in Emergency Medicine (EM) as part of their medical school curriculum (stratified group) were compared to those who did not (pooled group). Curricula of medical schools were reviewed. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data which included self-reported competencies and demographics among the medical graduates. The study population were 162 freshly graduated doctors, among them 35 received structured training in EM. Lack of competency in clinical skills ranged from 2.9% - 40% and 11.4% - 53% among stratified and pooled groups respectively. We found a statistically significant difference in skills related to assessment of acutely ill patient, use of ABCDE approach, valve mask ventilation, dysphagia screening, management of diabetic emergencies, and management of convulsions. A relatively higher level of competency was reported in those who received structured training in emergency medicine. Incorporation of emergency medicine in the curricula might improve the competency of junior doctors.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 434-437. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-12
Pub. Date: May 03, 2017
5919 Views1914 Downloads
What does Project-based Learning (PBL) Look like in the Mathematics Classroom?
Literature Review
This literature analysis addresses two issues concerning project-based learning (PBL) in the mathematics classroom: What it “looks like” and what its effectiveness in teaching skills. Articles addressing PBL in K-20 mathematics education were examined to determine what other discipline(s) the project included, what math topic(s) each addressed, and whether it demonstrated gains in students’ mathematical skills. Results show that about half of the projects applied engineering with the mathematics. Gains in achievement were mixed and transferred to standardized or state assessments only when PBL was a core component of a school’s curriculum. The lack of available research, however, discourages generalizations.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 428-433. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-11
Pub. Date: April 25, 2017
8212 Views3419 Downloads2 Likes
The Role and Contribution of Narrative Interviews in Educational Research
Original Research
This article explores the role and contribution of narrative interviews in educational research, by studying its application as data collecting technique in two different case studies: narrative interviews with directors of an academic college of education and with preschool teachers in Israel. The paper presents two case studies in which the narrative interview was used as a key methodological tool reflecting and describing the historical, cultural and educational contexts in which the subjects act, thus enabling a better understanding of the meaning of their behavior. Moreover, the interview allowed the subjects to reflect on their work processes and reconstruct their past experiences in relation to their roles and self-identities.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 419-427. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-10
Pub. Date: April 22, 2017
9078 Views2991 Downloads3 Likes
Difficulties of Applying Creative Thinking Skills in Teaching from the Perspective of Faculty Members in Najran University, Saudi Arabia
Original Research
The current study is an attempt to explore the difficulties of applying creative thinking skills in teaching from the perspective of faculty members in Najran University, KSA. The population consisted of all faculty members in Najran University, 700 faculty members. The sample has been chosen randomly, 248 faculty members. The results revealed that the difficulties of applying creative thinking skills in teaching from the perspective of faculty members in Najran University were medium. Furthermore, there were not statistically significant differences for the level of the difficulties of applying creative thinking skills in teaching from the perspective of faculty members in Najran University due to gender, but the differences attributed to qualification and experience. The study recommended the importance of training the faculty members on methods and activities that develop creative thinking skills they have; and the need to develop new curricula and study pals that include activities, which promote creative and critical thinking among faculty members.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 409-418. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-9
Pub. Date: April 21, 2017
7123 Views1878 Downloads
Education on Drinking Water Quality and Its Health Impacts among Students and Community People
Original Research
The health troubles due to poor drinking water quality are huge. The impact of increasing developmental activities, pollution and over-exploitation are altering the distribution of safe water. Besides this, the non-uniform distribution of rainfall due to changing climatic conditions aggravated the trouble. Both point and non-point sources of pollution affect the drinking water quality dominantly. The lack of education and awareness among community people and students about the drinking water quality are also key issues for health problems due to the consumption of contaminated water. Therefore, the knowledge of drinking water quality including health hygiene and sanitation aspects among students and community people is an urgent need. The present paper highlights the need of education about water quality, significant scientific information about the selected drinking water quality parameters, reasons of water quality deterioration, its health impacts etc.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 400-408. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-8
Pub. Date: April 20, 2017
7081 Views2734 Downloads
An Exploration of Perceptions and Understanding of the Purpose of CRE and the Consequential CRE Pedagogies in Uganda
Original Research
Religion is a fundamental phenomenon in Uganda. It is perceived to be a foundation for spiritual growth and morals in Uganda. Religious education is thus central in Uganda’s education system. However, this article concerns the perception and understanding of the purpose of CRE as school subject. Using qualitative methods, CRE teachers, priests and document analysis were used to collect data. Research reveals that there is no differentiation between purposes of religion as a faith and CRE as a school subject. The study unveils that the church influences CRE, dictates that CRE follows confessional pedagogies and that CRE should be compulsory.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 392-399. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-7
Pub. Date: April 15, 2017
6509 Views2299 Downloads
Educational Neuroscience, Educational Psychology, and Classroom Pedagogy as a System
Original Research
This paper introduces a view of educational process as a 3-layer system comprising human brain, personality psychology, and classroom pedagogy. It aims to present a classroom as a place where educational neuroscience and educational psychology meet to result in effective pedagogy. The paper demonstrates the advantages of such approach for mathematics education. Among them are understanding of mathematical anxiety as a defensive reaction of the brain on operating memory overflow, finding gifted and talented students objectively, assertion of possible limitations on the educational goals given unfavorable conditions, restricted time of information perception, limited liability of teachers and instructors for the success of their students, and opportunities for better outcomes when group learning, peer leadership, or cross-discipline teaching and learning are implemented. As examples of applications, a technology - based teaching technique MARTA and Virtual/Augmented Reality are discussed.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 384-391. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-6
Pub. Date: April 14, 2017
8389 Views3514 Downloads2 Likes
The Main Determinants of Moroccan Students' Outcomes
Original Research
The main purpose of the present article is to highlight the major factors affecting Moroccan students’ outcomes in the second year of college (8th grade) and the sixth year of primary school (6th grade) using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) (2011) databases compiled by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The use of a multilevel approach is appropriate in our case study because it enables us to deal with the hierarchical structure of the data at two levels. The two levels in our case study are the student level and the school level. The method of Multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) was applied to impute missing values contained in the student background, home, and school data files, and the endogeneity problem that results from the use of multilevel modeling was solved using the Hausman–Taylor instrumental variables estimator. The results show that Moroccan students’ outcomes are impacted by individual as well as contextual characteristics. More precisely, the index “school emphasis on academic success,” which is related to information about the student, parents, teachers, curricula, and educational goals, seems to play a key role in explaining Moroccan students’ academic performance.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 367-383. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-5
Pub. Date: April 13, 2017
10986 Views2075 Downloads1 Likes
Educational Efficacy of Derivation Method for Partial Differential Equations in Thermodynamics
Original Research
One of the mathematical difficulties with regard to thermodynamics for undergraduate university students is the treatment of the total differential, which contains partial derivatives. The conventional treatment suppresses the derivation of the partial differential equations (e.g., energy equation and Mayer’s relation), reducing the student’s understanding of the physical aspects of thermodynamics. This paper proposes a systematic method for of deriving the partial differential equations in thermodynamics, based on both the total differential and the appropriate selection of independent variables of the thermodynamic state variables. To demonstrate our method, the energy equation and Mayer’s relation are derived via the systematic approach, and students’ misunderstandings concerning the derivation process are presented. The results of a questionnaire administered to evaluate student opinions indicate that our proposed method is effective.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 362-366. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-4
Pub. Date: April 12, 2017
6795 Views2651 Downloads
A Needs Analysis for Poetry Appreciation Textbooks in Universitites: An Exploratory Study
Original Research
The objective of this study is to describe the needs for poetry appreciation textbooks in universities over the years. To collect data, researchers used a qualitative descriptive method and an interview technique involving university students and lecturers. The results of data analysis show that both university students and lecturers need textbooks on the poetry appreciation. Within a needs analysis framework, lecturers had a clear mode of perceptions of what they had been doing in terms of using poetry textbooks and talked about reasons why they focused on the literary appreciation. The use of poetry appreciation textbooks in lectures they deliver can help university students instill knowledge on the poetry appreciation through which they can pursue critical ideas, self-appreciation demands and character education values. In-class literary events are also grounded in interactive practices in which university students cooperate with each other in a range of lecturing activities: poetry reading, writing and discussing. This pedagogy implies that educational needs for poetry appreciation contribute to classroom literary culture, provision of poetry textbooks and university students’ engagement in poetry-related learning activities.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 357-361. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-3
Pub. Date: April 12, 2017
9061 Views3319 Downloads
Relationship between Peer Group Influence and Students’ Academic Achievement in Chemistry at Secondary School Level
Original Research
The research was designed to examine the relationship between peer group influence and academic achievement of secondary school chemistry students in some selected secondary schools in Jalingo metropolis of Taraba State. The study employed a survey- Causal-comparative research design in line with its appropriateness to the research problem. A sample of 120 students comprising of equal number of male and female students were selected randomly from three secondary schools. A 15-item questionnaire Peer Group Influence Assessment Questionnaire and Chemistry Achievement Test containing 50-items was administered to the students. The data were analyzed using means, standard deviation in answering the research questions and t-test and Person Product Moment Correlation were used in testing the hypotheses. The result from the study showed that; there is significant difference between students that belong to peer group and those that do not belong to peer group on the academic achievement of chemistry; there was no significant difference between the academic achievement of male and female chemistry students that are involved in peer group; and there is a positive and significant relationship between peer group influence and academic achievement of students in chemistry. It was therefore recommended that; school authorities/teachers should pay attention towards encouraging peer group activities in schools especially in the area of group discussion.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 350-356. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-2
Pub. Date: April 10, 2017
65095 Views10265 Downloads3 Likes
An Investigation of Psychosocial Support and Participation of Learners Affected by HIV/AIDS in Baringo Central Sub-County
Original Research
HIV/AIDS was declared a national disaster and health emergency in Kenya in the year 1999 and it has caused a lot of effects on education for children in the country. The existing literature indicates that children affected by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, require support activities in their institutions. The study was guide by the following objective: To identify effects of schools’ psychosocial support on participation of learners affected by HIV/AIDS in Baringo central sub-county. The study adopted mixed methodology, and Descriptive Survey research design as an overall plan for collecting data in order to answer the research questions. The study was guided by General Systems Theory. A theory which states that each an every concept is a system. The study employed stratified random sampling to select teachers from both private and public pre-schools. In this case, eight teachers from private schools and 94 teachers from public schools were selected. The target population was 507 pre-school teachers and head teachers. The researcher took a sample of 102 pre-school teachers and head teachers. A total of 34 head teachers and 68 pre-school teachers participated in the study. Data was collected was coded and analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version. The study yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. The qualitative data were presented through tables. The study yielded both primary and secondary data where primary data were obtained through questionnaires while secondary data were collected from books and internet sources. The instruments were piloted in three pre-schools. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistical technique which includes mean, mode percentages and frequencies. Data was presented using tables and pie charts. The findings of this study revealed that it would be useful to the policy makers to develop policy intervention measures that will ensure that there are redress mechanism to enhance access to education among children affected by HIV/AIDS. The study is beneficial to the communities, headteachers, teachers and learners in their efforts towards sustainable education in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(4), 344-349. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-4-1
Pub. Date: April 10, 2017
10454 Views3795 Downloads