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Volume 4, Issue 8

The Investigation of Strengths and Weaknesses of Primary School Teachers in Mathematics Knowledge
Original Research
This study aims to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of primary school teachers in mathematical knowledge based on self-made exam. This exam consisted of ten mathematics questions. To determine the reliability of our exam, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was used and was estimated to be 0.74 by SPSS software. For this purpose, 80 teachers of grade fifth and sixth participated in Shiraz city, Iran. Teachers were selected by valuable sampling. The responses from teachers have been analyzed. In this paper, we used Descriptive Statistics for the data analysis. Data analysis indicated that the average mark of primary school teachers was low in some mathematics areas and they were strong in few topics. As a result, we propose several solutions for the education system in order to reduce the weaknesses in mathematics teaching.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 648-651. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-10
Pub. Date: June 12, 2016
10650 Views2617 Downloads
Implementation of the Adjunct Faculty Model
Literature Review
The growing use of adjunct faculty in higher education has drawn its share of criticism. However, it is not necessarily bad to make use of the Adjunct Faculty Model (AFM) to support institutional mission and goals. This research uses content analysis to explore issues regarding how to precisely define the AFM as well as implementation and implications for faculty job satisfaction linked to student learning, which academic leadership (college deans, department chairs, directors) want to know.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 637-647. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-9
Pub. Date: June 06, 2016
12151 Views6037 Downloads1 Likes
An Interpretation of United States’s Education System through PISA Reports
Original Research
In this article, I attempt to show the characteristics of the education system in United States, doing so based on the educational performance revealed in different countries through the PISA 2006 Report. I describe the characteristics obtained by carrying out a comparison with other countries in the world, and I clearly define the benefits through four models that define the educational systems of the world to address their heterogeneity.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 624-636. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-8
Pub. Date: June 04, 2016
17252 Views5689 Downloads1 Likes
Management of Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria
Original Research
This study examined the management of teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State, Nigeria. Three (3) research questions and three (3) hypotheses were answered and tested in the study which adopted the descriptive survey as the working design. The population of this study comprised the 222 public secondary schools in Abia State with 222 principals and 118 supervisors from the Secondary Education Management Board from where a sample of 270 participants was drawn using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Respondents of the study responded to a validated instrument titled ‘Managing Teaching Staff Scale’ (MTSS) with a reliability index of 0.77 designed by the researchers in the modified 4-point Likert scale model. Mean, standard deviation and aggregate mean were used in answering the research questions, while z-test was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study show among others that the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery are that good condition of service among teachers motivates them to teach effectively, teachers make learning so interesting when they are regularly motivated by administrators, non-monetary motivations make teachers to be active in classroom activities, respect for teachers by administrative staff creates warm relationship among them for effective classroom instruction in schools, and motivation of teachers helps to control their classroom instructions for improved students’ academic performance. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended that school administrators and supervisors should adopt appropriate administrative strategies to countermand the negative effects of the challenges in school management to ensure effective service delivery.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 617-623. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-7
Pub. Date: June 01, 2016
19989 Views4959 Downloads2 Likes
A Study to Explore the Coordination Level among Personnel of Servicing Departments at Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad
Original Research
Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) having Mode of Distance Learning Education System is a Mega University of Pakistan due to its huge student’s enrollment i.e. more than 1.2 million in multiple programmes of Secondary level to Ph. D level in each semester. Coordination of personnel working in the different departments of any institution is a compulsory element for the achievement of objectives of the institution. Therefore it is necessary to explore the level of coordination among the employees of AIOU. The data was collected through questionnaire and interview from the Supervisory staff and officers BPS-09-19 working in servicing departments of AIOU. Total size of population was 105. The data obtained were interpreted and analyzed using the percentages and means scores. The study reflects lack of coordination among the officials of servicing departments, due to overload of work, lack of staff, non-availability of adequate space for working environment, non-availabilities of equipment/adequate system and lack of communications skills etc. The study recommends that the size of the regular staff may be increased in the servicing departments of AIOU as well as adequate space, facilities and equipment may be provided to those departments.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 613-616. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-6
Pub. Date: May 26, 2016
8069 Views3034 Downloads1 Likes
Using Simulations to Detect Difficulties in the Process of Learning “Chemical Solutions”
Original Research
Using animations, visualizations and simulations is a common practice to teach chemistry. These didactic resources provide a motivational effect which in turn should improve the understanding of concepts by the students. This is effectively observed, but not all students benefit from these resources to the same extent. In this work, we use a simulation of chemical solutions and then evaluate a group of students on it. From the wrong answers we proceed to establish categories: 1) Incorrect or misguided mathematical approaches, dissociated from the chemical meaning of the question, 2) difficulties in the use of chemical syntax, 3) semantic difficulties, and 4) alternative mental models. Having identified the types of errors allows teachers to work on them in a directed manner, making possible different approaches for each category.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 608-612. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-5
Pub. Date: May 25, 2016
8238 Views3044 Downloads
Promoting Collaborative Learning among Students
Original Research
What is the distinction between collaborative and co-operative learning? In co-operative learning action is adjusted by individuals in a group to achieve individual goals. In collaborative learning, actions are adjusted to achieve shared goals. They not only learn from the teacher, but also from each other. In contrast in co-operative learning, the teacher still remains in control of what is going on in the class. The design of the collaborative task is crucial to the effectiveness of collaboration. The task must not be one which can be completed only by one person in a group. It should require a contribution from each member of the group. The group members should be interdependent upon each other to successfully complete the task. The task should not be a ‘right answer’ task. There should be several possible answers so that the group members could discuss which answers are better and the reason why some answers are better. What are the challenges of collaborative learning? Participants may only be used to isolated learning, where they compete with other students, and if that is the case, they would find it difficult to adjust to collaborative learning. Some students prefer to be taught and be passive learners, rather than be active learners, which would require more effort on their part. Another challenge is teachers who find it difficult to give up their teacher-centred instructional role and move to a facilitator of learning role. What are the advantages of collaborative learning? Such learning improves communication and dialogue between participants in a group, and assists in socially and intellectually connecting with members of the group. Students are motivated as they are actively involved in the learning process. The retention rate improves and students perform better at assessments, as they have engaged in deeper and more meaningful learning. As students are engaged in discussing and debating they are more likely to become critical learners. When students learn in a group, with other students explaining concepts to them, they will find different interpretations, which will result in students having to re-think their own understanding. There will be development of higher-level thinking skills, oral and written communication (in online collaborative learning), leadership and teamwork skills. A disadvantage of collaborative learning is that there might be one or two who dominate. There might be some who do not make much contribution despite having the opportunity to do so. Collaborative learning may not be suitable to some individuals who prefer isolated learning. They may not gain much benefit if they are forced into collaborative learning situations. Research has shown frustration among some students who have experienced collaborative learning. There may be some students who prefer to learn from an expert on a subject rather than from other students who they perceive to be lacking in knowledge. Students may find that they are studying at a different pace than others in the group, which may cause difficulties to themselves and their group members.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 602-607. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-4
Pub. Date: May 23, 2016
9779 Views3348 Downloads
Educators’ Attitude towards Outcomes-Based Educational Approach in English Second Language Learning
Original Research
Determining the educators’ attitude towards Outcomes-Based Educational (OBE) approach in English language is essential for the success of any undertaking to shift to a new paradigm in the curriculum. This study used descriptive-correlational research design to investigate to what extent English language educators are accepting or resisting the envisioned education approach in a State University. Quantitative data gathered from researcher-made survey were analyzed using SPSS software. Relationships among variables were determined using the Spearman’s rho. Results revealed that the respondents’ age, number of years in teaching and educational attainment are positively related to their attitude towards Outcomes-Based Education (OBE). This study has helped in making the educational institution realize the pressing need for their commitment to support academic staff by providing continuing professional development to educators, and a facilitative learning environment to students that will help achieve the desired learning outcomes in English as Second Language (ESL) class.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 597-601. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-3
Pub. Date: May 21, 2016
14677 Views5980 Downloads3 Likes
Realistic Intelligence and 21st Century Skills in Adapted Learning Environment
Original Research
Today most schools are still using traditional and outdated teaching methods and learning environments. On the other hand, the highly competitive working environments create high level of uncertainty and demand adaptive thinking skills and creativity. Therefore the role and purpose of schools, learning spaces and teachers has to be changed and adapted to the 21st century needs. We developed a 4-step model called “Dynamic and Synchronized Pedagogy”, in an advanced learning environment based on Steelcase Education design, in which students are able to open a window to a world of engagement, motivation, success and deeper understanding.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 588-596. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-2
Pub. Date: May 21, 2016
13621 Views4755 Downloads2 Likes
Private Sector Involvement in Education Enterprise and Quality Learning Outcome in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria
Original Research
The study examined motivational and operational involvement of private sector in education enterprise, and determined the implication on students’ learning outcome in secondary schools in Ondo State. Survey and ex-post-facto research designs were adopted. 98 top-management members completed the instrument titled “Private Sector Involvement in Education Enterprise Questionnaire” (PSIEEQ) in 49 secondary schools using multi-stage sampling technique. Four research questions and two hypotheses were formulated. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean score and pearson product moment correlation statistics at p<0.05 level of significance. The result showed low relationship between motivational factors and operation of school business (r=-0.236, p<0.05); also there was low relationship between operational factors and students’ learning outcome (r=0.185, p<0.05), The proprietors are largely motivated by the need to salvage education standard; students’ learning outcome was low at a cumulative mean score of 4.31 which confirmed the 40.3% average level of performance recorded between 2012 and 2014; the major challenges included irregular payment of school fees (61.3%), inadequate classrooms (34.7%), inadequate qualified teachers (38.8%), inadequate learning resources (57.1%), poor road networks (38.8%), irregular electricity supply (53.1%) and policy threats (59.3%). It is therefore concluded that state government should create enabling policy and improve the condition of social amenities while proprietors should give more commitment to the provision of adequate qualified teachers, updated libraries, well equipped laboratories, standard workshops and adequate instructional materials to improve students’ learning outcome in secondary schools.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(8), 578-587. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-8-1
Pub. Date: May 17, 2016
124976 Views104443 Downloads