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Volume 4, Issue 13

Seasonal Variation Assessment and Correlation Coefficent of Metal Pollutants in Sediments and Water from Porto Novo Lagoon Ecosystem, Benin Republic
Original Research
The study on concentrations of metal pollutants as an index of pollution in sediments and water samples of Porto-Novo Lagoon ecosystem was carried out for 12 months within two seasons (July-December 2014 and January-June 2015). Metal pollutants including Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pd, Ni, Va, and Methyl mercury were investigated. This study employed the application of exploratory data analysis statistics, laboratory analysis and sampling techniques to reveal all tested metal pollutants and identify their sources. There is a significant difference in the metal pollutants in the sediments and water of Porto-Novo lagoon during rainy and dry seasons at 5% level of significance and correlation analysis showed that the mean concentration of metal pollutants in sediments and water were positive correlated values. The results proved that the sediments and water of Porto-Novo Lagoon are highly polluted with metal Pollutants, which might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem. National Priority List (NPL) on Porto-Novo Lagoon ecosystem is therefore, recommended for the revamping of the aquatic ecosystem.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 976-982. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-10
Pub. Date: August 18, 2016
9648 Views3168 Downloads1 Likes
PBL Pedagogy in the Chinese Clinical Training: A Meta-analysis Short Title: PBL in Chinese Clinical Training
Meta-Analysis
Background: The problem-based learning (PBL) teaching method has been indicated to be more effective than lecture-based learning (LBL) teaching method in the Chinese clinical training. However, the individual studies results were still conflicting. Objective and methods: To explore the effectiveness of PBL teaching method in the Chinese clinical training, a meta-analysis including 913 participants from 13 studies was carried out. The random or fixed effect models were used to evaluate the standardized mean difference (SMD) or the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The PBL teaching method had a positive effect on achieving higher theoretical (SMD=1.04, 95% CI: 0.51-1.56, P=0.0001) and practical scores (SMD=1.54, 95% CI: 1.03-2.06, P=5.54×10-9) than LBL teaching method in the Chinese pre-clinical training. Conclusions: The PBL was more effective in the Chinese clinical training than the traditional LBL teaching method. The application of PBL should be carried out on a larger scale in the clinical education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 970-975. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-9
Pub. Date: August 18, 2016
8959 Views3514 Downloads1 Likes
Students' Engagement in Social Media and Its Mainstay for Teaching and Learning. The Case of the Wa Nursing Training College
Original Research
Scholars have different views on the use of social media and its effects on teaching and learning. This study looked at students’ engagement in social media and its significance for their academic performance. The study was a cross sectional survey. Questionnaire (based on 4-Likert scale) and observation were used for data collection. Hundred and ten (110) student-nurses were conveniently sampled for the study. A section of the participants were observed in the Information and Communication Technology Laboratory during their computer lessons. The results which were processed with SPSS version 20 indicate that the student-nurses engaged mostly in Facebook, WhatsApp, and Google+, YouTube and Twitter. Participants used social media largely for learning, socialization, and entertainment. Majority specified that social media influence their academic performance positively. It is recommended that Interactive Social Networks should be developed by Health Training Institutions (HTIs) for teaching and learning purposes in the country.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 961-969. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-8
Pub. Date: August 17, 2016
21963 Views7247 Downloads1 Likes
An Evaluation of School Health Promoting Programmes and the Implementation of Child Friendly Schools Initiative in Primary Schools in Kenya
Original Research
This paper discusses the efforts related to school health that have been put in place in primary schools to promote learner friendly environments based on a study that was done in Uasin Gishu county, Kenya. The study was guided by the following objective: to assess the health promoting programmes that have been put in place and their effect on implementation of child friendly schools initiative. This study was anchored on resiliency theory as proposed by Krovetz (1998). Resiliency theory defines the protective factors in families, schools, and communities that exist in the lives of successful children and youth and compares these protective factors with what is missing from the lives of children and youth who are troubled. This study adopted a pragmatic approach to research and a mixed methods research design. From the 338 public primary schools in the county, a total of 103 schools were sampled to participate in the study which constituted 30% of the target population. A total of 103 headteachers and 103 class seven class teachers and 2,259 class seven pupils, who were grouped into 202 focus group discussions, participated in the study. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics as well as qualitative techniques. It was established that there is a significant positive relationship between school health promoting programmes and implementation of child friendly schools initiative. It was also noted that schools still experienced challenges in relation to provision of adequate nutrition, clean and safe drinking water as well as access to proper healthcare within the reach of children and communities. The study is significant to headteachers, parents, communities and the ministry of education in an effort to promote learner friendly schools.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 954-960. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-7
Pub. Date: August 17, 2016
9336 Views2827 Downloads1 Likes
A Multiple Intelligences Based-Teaching of English at University Level
Original Research
Multiple Intelligences Theory has attracted the attention of educators around the world for its great role in the field of education and other fields since 1980s. So teachers of English have applied the philosophy of such a theory in their classes at different levels for the sake of enhancing their students’ learning and providing them with better learning environments. The importance of the present study lies in the fact that it is the first time to apply this theory in the context of Kurdistan universities/ Iraq. It is also important for both teachers teaching English as a foreign language and students learning English as a foreign language. Based on Multiple Intelligences Theory, the present study among other things aimed at teaching English grammar to undergraduate university students learning English a foreign language at the Department of English/ Faculty of Humanities/ University of Zakho/ Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The problem diagnosed by the researcher is that when teaching grammar to students, it is not related to other aspects of language especially writing., which made students face difficulties when writing essays due to the poor grammar they use, which in turn affects their messages they want to convey to their audience. To conduct the present study, the researcher has adopted an experimental research design for identifying the effect of Multiple Intelligences Theory on learners’ achievement. 34 students (4th year, 13 males and 21 females) were chosen to participate in this experimental teaching program. Before starting the course, a pretest was administered to the students. Then, they were divided into two groups: control group which will be taught according to the curriculum prescribed by the Dept. and experimental group which will be taught according to Multiple Intelligences Theory. Each group consisted of 17 students. After 12 weeks of teaching both groups, a posttest was administered to the same groups After that, the scores obtained by both groups were analyzed using SPSS software. Two statistical analysis tools were used : independent t-test and paired samples t-test to test the null hypothesis against the data analyzed. Based on the results gained on posttest, the null hypothesis was rejected due to the significant difference in the mean scores at the level of 0.05.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 948-953. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-6
Pub. Date: August 15, 2016
10986 Views5124 Downloads6 Likes
Composite Instructional Method and Its Effect on Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Fluid Flow Physics in Mt Elgon Sub-county, Kenya
Original Research
Physics is one of the sciences that are applicable in day to day life activities. Physics ideas are also required in other science subjects such as biology and chemistry. It is evident that Physics related courses from tertiary level are very marketable. Despite of this importance and value of Physics, performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination has remain dismal, hindering students from doing Physics related courses at tertiary level. This paper reports findings of a study that investigated the effect of Composite Instructional Method in comparison with Conventional Instructional Method on students’ academic achievement in fluid flow physics. The study was done in Mt Elgon Sub-county of Bungoma County. A sample of 300 participants was selected through simple random sampling The adopted a Pre-test, Post-test non Equivalent Quasi experimental design. Achievement tests were used to collect data of students’ academic achievement. Reliability of the instruments was determined using the test and retest method while their validity was established from experts’ comments and advice. The collected data were analyzed using independent samples-t-test to determine the effect of Composite Instructional Method on students’ academic achievement in fluid flow physics. The research finding has implications on physics curriculum reforms by the Ministry of Education.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 943-947. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-5
Pub. Date: August 15, 2016
9538 Views3612 Downloads2 Likes
Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Sudanese Medical Students: A Cross Sectional Study on Role of Quality of Life and Social Support
Original Research
We aimed to find out the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among medical students in a developing country, and to find the possible role of social support and quality of life in developing depression, anxiety, and stress.We did a cross sectional study in medical students of faculty of medicine in Khartoum, Sudan. We did a clustered random sampling in students from the second to sixth year and collected 500 questionnaires of which 487 were suitable for analysis. The data collection tool composed of three questionnaires; MOS social support survey, Depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS21), and WHO quality of life brief (WHOQOLB) questionnaire. More than 50% of respondents had different grades of depression, anxiety, and stress where 21%, 22%, and 16% had moderate degree of depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Quality of environment and physical health were the major determinant of depression, anxiety, and stress (R=0.252-0.465, P values <0.001). From the four domains of social support assessed by MOS survey, there was significant association only between positive social interaction domain and depression (R=0.354, P<0.001). There was no significant association between social support and stress and anxiety. There was no significant differences in depression scores among different academic years (P=0.246). However, stress and anxiety showed significant differences in different academic years, notably between the middle years, and second and final years (P=0.043 and 0.00 respectively). The quality of environment and physical health seems to play a key role in student mental health.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 937-942. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-4
Pub. Date: August 10, 2016
12556 Views3851 Downloads
The Implications of Learning Theories to Assessment and Instructional Scaffolding Techniques
Original Research
Learning theories, which provide a profound coherence and understanding in changing teaching practices and standards, are imperative to the choice and employment of assessment and instructional scaffolding techniques. The paradigm shift of assessment “of” learning to assessment “for” learning has brought diversity to educational practice especially in the propagation of creativity and critical thinking among students. Faculty members are to embrace this challenge of systematization of assessment and instructional scaffolding techniques if they are committed to effective teaching and learning. Hence, they need to extend feedback and feed-forward mechanisms and model situations for the learners to engage in appropriate action which lead them to the closure of the gap between current and good performance.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 931-936. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-3
Pub. Date: August 10, 2016
6658 Views2826 Downloads
Do High-Stakes English Proficiency Tests Motivate Taiwanese University Students to Learn English?
Opinion Paper
Taiwan’s Ministry of Education has encouraged all Taiwanese institutions of higher learning to utilize English proficiency tests as a graduation requirement. Many educators and administrators feel that these tests are a good way to objectively measure the effectiveness of students’ learning stratagems as well as teacher and program efficacy. These are high stake tests which have a great deal of impact on students, teachers and entire universities. Nevertheless, considerable research, from Taiwan and abroad, indicates that these tests are not effective as tools for promoting learning or increasing student motivation.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 927-930. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-2
Pub. Date: August 10, 2016
6845 Views2739 Downloads1 Likes
Effectiveness of Micro-Modules in a Science Classics Course
Original Research
Undergraduate liberal arts education often includes reading classic literature. In accordance to this philosophy, the Chinese University of Hong Kong launched two compulsory classics-reading courses for all students. One of these courses, In Dialogue with Nature, requires students to read science-related classics to cultivate scientific literacy. There were evidences that the course has been highly regarded by the students in general. However, students without science background have been reportedly encountering difficulty in studying this course even though the course objective is to teach only the method, characteristics and influence of science but not the scientific knowledge in detail. A set of micro-modules was developed to supplement these students with scientific concepts that are deemed to be fundamental to the understanding of the classics. This paper reports the statistical analysis of the effectiveness of the micro-modules by two measurement tools. First, students’ self-reported perceptions on their achievements in the course were collected by the entry and exit surveys. Second, academic grades of the students were also retrieved to measure the effectiveness objectively. The analysis shows strong signs of positive effects on the micro-modules to the users, as well as the entire class. This finding suggests the importance of supplementing basic scientific concepts to students with diversified background when cultivating the scientific literacy through the classics reading approach.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(13), 917-926. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-13-1
Pub. Date: August 09, 2016
10381 Views3277 Downloads