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Volume 4, Issue 1

Teacher Excessive Pedagogical Authority in Moroccan Primary Classroom
Original Research
This article presents an ethnographic study conducted in five Moroccan primary schools in Marrakech and region. This study uses cultural models theory as a tool of inquiry to investigate primary school teachers’ conceptualizations of their role in the space of classroom and how they exercise their pedagogical authority. The intention is to develop awareness of the sociocultural embeddedness of teachers’ beliefs and assumptions with regard to classroom practice. Classroom observations and interviews indicate that the exercise of authority is a routine feature of most teacher–student interactions. Classroom control and discipline seem to constitute an integral part of the pedagogical conceptualizations of most interviewed teachers. There is insistence on establishing teacher authoritative presence in class as a guaranty of exacting obedience and compliance from students. The teachers identify their functions mainly in terms of classroom control and knowledge transmission. Teacher-student relationship is governed and regulated by a well-defined system of hierarchical values and customs. The teachers’ views seem to run counter official pronouncements on institutionalizing learner-centered approaches. This might explain the fact that after years of ‘implementation’, learner-centered approaches has done poorly in terms of being institutionalized and do not appear to have achieved their desiderata.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 134-146. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-20
Pub. Date: February 17, 2016
10200 Views4807 Downloads7 Likes
The Effect of Summarization as a Pre-Listening Technique at University Preparatory Classes
Original Research
Listening forms a considerable role whilst communication. As for foreign language learning, listening is of major significance since it produces language input. For students, listening comprehension is one of the most challenging courses. For second language instructors, fostering the students’ listening comprehension skills and preparing them as active listeners is a big challenge. In this manner, this paper presents findings from an action research study exploring the impact of summarization technique as a pre-listening activity on EFL learners’ performance in giving correct immediate written response to listening comprehension questions. Data were elicited from 15 elementary level university prep class students at a state university in Turkey. A comparison between the pre-test and post-test scores demonstrated that the learners achieved significantly higher marks after the treatment classes. The findings suggest that summarization of listening passages is a useful predictor of improved performance.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 126-133. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-19
Pub. Date: February 17, 2016
14727 Views4780 Downloads
Improving Pupils’ Conceptual Understanding by a Connected In-school and Out-of-school Science Program: A Multiple Case Study
Original Research
The number of out-of-school science programs, which refers to science education at outside school environments, is gradually increasing. Although out-of-school programs are generally considered to be important for the development of pupils’ science knowledge and skills, more evidence concerning the learning effect of these programs is needed. In the present study, we explored whether different degrees of implementation of a connected in-school and out-of-school science program affect pupils’ cognitive science skills in relation to teachers’/instructors’ support. We used a multiple case study design with four cases comprising three different degrees of program implementation: optimal, intermediary and marginal. The cases comprised pupils of upper grade elementary school classes, their teachers, and the instructors of the out-of-school activity. The effect of the program was measured by coding pupils’ performance with a scale based on skill theory, and by coding teacher’s/instructor’s support with the Openness Scale. The data was gathered from microgenetic measurements over time, corresponding with an in-depth analysis of the process of change in naturalistic conditions. We found the highest learning effect in the optimal program implementation, which indicates that it is favorable to implement the complete program, and train teachers/instructors to use open teaching focused on conceptual understanding.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 115-125. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-18
Pub. Date: January 26, 2016
16893 Views6477 Downloads4 Likes
Subjective Happiness Assessment among Taif University Medical Students
Original Research
Happiness is a very important factor in human life, it is due to happiness that a person can perform tasks in a better or worse way, as it can affect performance. It also could be affected by different factors including study load, smoking, marital status, income, exercise, and study habits. Medical students in particular are subject to have many factors that could influence their happiness level. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 605 medical students at Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia that was conducted between August and November of 2015. Students filled a questioner that includes demographic data and validated questions to assess the subjective happiness [the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS)]. We classified students into happy and unhappy groups according to the score achieved. Those who achieved score more than median were considered to be happy. The primary goal is to assess the level happiness and it’s relation to the level of the students, gender, income, study habits, and lifestyle habits. According to the SHS, more students were classified as unhappy (54.4%). The 2nd and 3rd year groups were more likely to be happy (p 0.106). Engaged students were more likely to be happy compared to those who were single or married (p 0.323). Happy students tend to have non-significant higher mean GPA. Happy students were more likely to be younger and reports high/middle income compared to the unhappy group (p <0.05). Those who do exercise for at least 30 min were more likely to be happy compared to those who reports sedentary lifestyle (p 0.146). Students study habits didn’t impact the happiness level (p 0.953). According to SHS, more students were considered to be unhappy. The 2nd and 3rd year groups were happier than the other years. Happy students were more likely to be male, younger, engaged, reports high/middle income, higher GPA and exercise more.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 111-114. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-17
Pub. Date: January 25, 2016
13524 Views6426 Downloads9 Likes
Junior High School Mathematics Teachers’ Tutoring in Extra-curricular Time: An Empirical Research
Original Research
This research focused on the current status of junior high school mathematics teachers’ tutoring in extra-curricular time and adopted face-to-face interview method to collect information. A total of 133 mathematics teachers from 9 cities in participated in this survey. The results indicated: (1) 88.76% of teachers usually tutored backward students; (2) 93.75% of teachers always employed the face-to-face way to tutor; (3) 97.63% of teachers tutored students between classes; (4)88.61% of teachers tutored students not more than 15 minutes; (5) 89.83% of teachers generally tutored students problem solving, etc. So the current method of junior high school mathematics teachers’ tutoring was obviously too simple and superficial. This should be the direct reason resulted in the low efficiency of mathematics tutoring in extra-curricular time in current junior high school.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 108-110. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-16
Pub. Date: January 24, 2016
10898 Views4481 Downloads5 Likes
The Diagnostic and Therapeutic Role of Music in Mental Health: Implications to National Development
Original Research
This paper observes that from time immemorial, mental illness has been a global disease, yet its causes are still foggy to mankind. It further observes the powerful correlation between mental health and the role of music therapy as a means of advancing the physical, emotional, intellectual and social behaviour of students in schools. The music for the mentally ill has been observed to have both diagnostic and therapeutic values inherent in them when applied. The paper traces the development of music therapy, implications to music education and national development. It is the view of this paper that Universities, hospitals and churches in the country should establish music therapeutic centres in their institutions to enhance the practice of music therapy.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 104-107. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-15
Pub. Date: January 24, 2016
9627 Views5074 Downloads2 Likes
Teaching Practices of Academic Language Support. A Video-based Analysis of Mathematics Lessons in Germany and in Switzerland
Original Research
Language teaching and learning is important in all school subjects. This is the underlying idea of this paper, which analyses teaching practices in mathematics lessons filmed during ‘The Pythagoras Study’. Qualitative methods are engaged to reconstruct how the teachers draw the pupils’ attention to linguistic features and language use in functional contexts of subject teaching. Specifically, it is investigated how teaching practices open students’ access to a subject-specific genre: a mathematical theorem. The theoretical framework includes the language concept of systemic functional linguistics. Theoretical concepts that are employed to identify promising teaching practices are a model for Introducing and Scaffolding Genres in the Classroom, the concept of Academic Discourse Practices and the concept of Dialogic Teaching. The findings inform us about teaching practices of academic and technical language support. They show how academic discourse practices of language observation as well as a cumulative classroom discourse can support the students’ access to a subject specific genre.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 91-103. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-14
Pub. Date: January 12, 2016
9878 Views5319 Downloads2 Likes
Investigating Mathematics Teachers' Role to Improve Students’ Creative Thinking
Original Research
Successful Teacher enhances, encourages and helps to develop the students' creative thinking, methods of teaching and democratic environment increase the students ability of creative thinking, as what previous several studies which showed that the moderate school environment leads to the availability characteristics of creativeness, such as extroversion, enthusiasm, emotional equilibrium of the instructor, and the ability to enhance creative thinking among students. The study aimed to investigate the roles of mathematics teachers in improving creative thinking, and it is restricted to a high school math teachers’ role of creative thinking abilities associated with fluency, originality, flexibility, explanations And their ability to support those skills in the classroom, researchers suggested a list of themes improving creative thinking abilities, the following main three themes; Asking questions, Teacher’s response, and Building an exciting environment. To achieve these goals for the current study, the researcher limited the study on develop methods of evaluating, a suggested methods of teaching for in service teachers' to improve their performance and their creative thinking abilities by the diversity of teaching methods such as using open-end divergent questions, motivational questions, and brainstorming.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 82-90. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-13
Pub. Date: January 12, 2016
11619 Views4689 Downloads7 Likes
Mental Health and Adjustment of Prospective Secondary Education Teachers
Original Research
The present study is an attempt to explore the level of mental health and adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers. For the present investigation the investigators adopted descriptive method incorporated with survey technique. Sample consists 300 B.Ed students from rural and urban colleges of Thanjavur District, TamilNadu. Random sampling technique was followed. Mental Health battery constructed and standardized by Singh & Sengupta and Adjustment inventory constructed and standardized by Sinha & Singh were used to collect data. Descriptive, differential, correlation were used for data analysis. The mental health of samples of prospective secondary education teachers is average and good. The adjustment of male and female prospective secondary education teachers is very unsatisfactory and unsatisfactory respectively. Correlation between mental health and adjustment variables is very low and negative. Results also revealed that prospective secondary education teachers have favorable mental health and less adjustment.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 76-81. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-12
Pub. Date: January 08, 2016
13369 Views6006 Downloads4 Likes
Gender and Race Differences in American College Enrollment: Evidence from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002
Original Research
This article examines college enrollment of male and female students from different racial-ethnic groups. Utilizing nationally representative data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), the present study investigates the following research question: Among those who have completed high school or received a General Educational Development certificate (GED), to what extent are gender and racial/ethnic differences in enrollment explained by students’ pre-college academic achievement, educational and parental expectations net of socio-economic background, family structure and high school characteristics? The study finds that females have a great advantage over males in overall college enrollment, and the female advantage also exists within each racial/ethnic group. For racial/ethnic differences in college enrollment, the study finds that black and Hispanic students are less likely to go to any college compared to their white peers. However, when black, Hispanic, and white students have completed high school and have similar socioeconomic background and precollege achievement, black and Hispanic students are more likely than are white students to go to any colleges.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 64-75. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-11
Pub. Date: January 08, 2016
11556 Views4479 Downloads8 Likes
Improvement in Computer Literacy through Creating Digital Storytelling
Original Research
"Creation of storytelling" using PowerPoint was conducted so as to raise computer literacy and to foster the students' self-understanding. They were required to draw a figure using Excel and stick it on a report. They were expected to write their reports using Word. The pre and post literacy in functions of the software of three kinds was investigated to know the computer literacy which was able to be developed by "creating the storytelling". As a result, the pre literacy in functions of PowerPoint was lower than those of Word and Excel. After this practice, the post literacy in the functions of PowerPoint significantly became higher. This paper will report that students became able to utilize the functions of PowerPoint as same as those of Word and Excel. Principal component analysis will be conducted for elongation in the literacy of PowerPoint. Cluster analysis will be conducted using the principal component score as a variable. As the results, students will be divided into four groups: the group whose elongation in the general literacy of PowerPoint is higher, the group whose elongation in literacy related to an animation is higher, the group whose elongation in the overall literacy of PowerPoint is third, and the group whose elongation in the skill of PowerPoint and Excel is lowest.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 54-63. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-10
Pub. Date: January 05, 2016
13200 Views5673 Downloads3 Likes
Developing Employability Skills by Using Blended Learning
Original Research
What are the employability skills that students should acquire in order to increase their chances of gaining employment on being awarded a degree? To what extent do students develop each of these skills in face-to-face teaching? To what extent do students who learn in a purely online environment develop each of the employability skills? The thesis is that face-to-face teaching alone or online learning environments alone are not sufficient to fully develop employability skills. The way forward is to adopt blended learning. What is blended learning? It is a combination of face-to-face teaching with online learning. Is the provision of learning materials in the form of lecture notes, power point slides, interactive self-test questions, access to an online library to encourage independent learning, effective blended learning? The presenter advocates blended learning which takes the form of online discussion forums, in combination with face-to-face teaching, as an effective student learning and skills development experience. Is the provision of an online discussion forum for student discussion alone sufficient for effective learning and skills development? Research indicates that the presence, participation and constructive feedback of the teacher/facilitator are essential for an effective online discussion forum. The paper will be based on theoretical research as well as empirical evidence (obtained by observation of skills development in face-to-face classes and online discussion forums). The empirical evidence includes the embedding of employability skills (including ethical awareness) at the Law School in the London School of Business and Management in 2014/15. The main aim of this proposal is to compare face-to-face teaching with online teaching, consider the advantages and disadvantages of both forms of teaching/learning to enhance students’ employment opportunities, and then to put forward the recommendation that if academics wish to ensure the enhancement of students’ employment opportunities, they should adopt blended learning with an effective online discussion forum to co-exist with face-to-face teaching.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 47-53. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-9
Pub. Date: January 05, 2016
9860 Views4741 Downloads3 Likes
Reviews of Biology and Mathematics APPs for Use by Science and Mathematics Teachers
Original Research
In science education, the question about using technology to teach the content and concepts is enduring. The complexity of teaching content, concepts and practices is expressed at the same time that technology has “advanced” to multiple devices beyond the desktop or laptop forms of computers to devices that are hand-held and range from e-readers to iPads and beyond. Each device has applications (Apps) that range from transmission of content to learning tools. Because no formal evaluation of Ipad Apps exists, a method was developed and implemented for our research. Researchers in this study developed a method for reviewing science and mathematics Apps and provided a list of the “top” Apps in an alphabetical topic list found in a newly developed website.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 40-46. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-8
Pub. Date: January 05, 2016
13709 Views5734 Downloads2 Likes
New Approach to the Lipids in Secondary Schools
Original Research
This article focuses on the problem of teaching food chemistry and nutrition in secondary school curricula. In it we propose a new approach to the topic of lipids from the perspective of food chemistry and nutrition, and we have developed this topic into a new program for interactive whiteboards. The program should be understood as an overview, and its content was derived from the results of a range of analyses of secondary school chemistry and biology textbooks. These analyses have shown that the textbooks in question have substantial shortcomings in addressing the topics of food chemistry and nutrition. While the textbooks contain sufficient terminology related to the given topic, their attention to nutrition and illnesses associated with it is minimal. In addition to the textbooks analyzed, the proposed content of the lipids unit is derived from the results of numerous World Health Organization research projects, as well as from the recommendations of dieticians and doctors. The results of our survey conducted among third year secondary school students confirmed their insufficient knowledge about the issues of nutrition and illnesses associated with it, thus confirming the need to change the way in which it is taught. We have created entirely new content for the topic of lipids in the form of an educational text designed for secondary school (or potentially even primary school) teachers. It consists of three sections: 1) lipids as a component of food, 2) the digestion and metabolism of lipids, and 3) proper nutrition, diet, and illnesses associated with nutrition. Each section contains motivational-educational material created for interactive whiteboards. For each section there is also a corresponding PowerPoint presentation which can be given to students as further study material.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 33-39. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-7
Pub. Date: January 05, 2016
13876 Views6231 Downloads2 Likes
Challenges Facing Mobile School among Nomadic Pastoralists: A Case Study of Turkana County
Original Research
As the universalization of primary education has become a central factor in countries’ global competitiveness, nations round the world are engaging in alternative approaches for educational provision initiatives aimed at reaching the disadvantaged nomadic pastoralist groups. Among the strategies in use are mobile schools, as a Non Formal Education (NFE) approach. Mobile schools are weighed down with challenges of implementation and its graduates being integrated into the formal system of education, hence threatening its survival. This study presents the findings of a qualitative multiple case study conducted on mobile schools aimed at exploring the challenges facing provision of education to the nomadic pastoralists of Turkana County, Kenya. This study used bottom-up policy implementation theoretical approach. The findings of this study indicate that inadequate number of teachers; lack of teacher motivation; lack of community awareness and sensitization on importance of schooling; lack of food and water for both human and livestock; and unavailability of health services as the key challenges. The study recommends more teachers to be employed, teachers motivation be improved and a multifaceted approach in education provision in order to promote the sustainability of this form of education provision through mobile schools.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 22-32. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-6
Pub. Date: January 05, 2016
13448 Views4519 Downloads5 Likes
Effectiveness of Using Creative Mental Images in Teaching Reading Comprehension in Primary Schools in Nigeria
Original Research
The study examined the effectiveness of using creative mental images in teaching reading comprehension in primary schools in Nigeria. A sample of sixty (60) pupils from two primary schools were used (i.e. 30 pupils from each school). A quasi experimental research design was used for the study. Kargi primary school in Kaduna South was used as the experimental group while Katsina Road primary school in Kaduna North was used as the control group. Both groups were pre-tested to establish the homogeneity of the two groups. The two groups were taught reading comprehension for eight (8) weeks. The experimental group was taught reading comprehension using creative mental images, while the control group was taught using the traditional method. Both groups were assessed using reading comprehension test. T-test was used to test the hypothesis raised in the study. The findings revealed significant differences in the performance of pupils taught reading comprehension using creative mental images. Based on the findings teachers are encouraged to use creative mental images in teaching reading comprehension. This will help to stimulate pupils to create feelings that are vital to making reading comprehension more vivid, exciting, enjoyable and fun. As pupils create mental images individually or in groups, they are able to trigger a wide range of memories and feelings, thus creating movies of the text in their minds. Workshops should be organized for teachers on how to stimulate pupils to create mental images in reading comprehension lessons. Curriculum planners and textbook writers should equally provide creative mental images exercises as part of pupil’s activities in the reading component of the English Language Curriculum for Basic Education.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 18-21. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-5
Pub. Date: January 05, 2016
10188 Views4349 Downloads4 Likes
Is the ‘quality’ of Preschool Childcare, Measured by the Qualifications and Pay of the Childcare Workforce, Improving in Britain?
Original Research
The purpose of this paper is to report on the changing qualifications, pay and working conditions of the British childcare workforce between 2005 and 2014. This is in order to contribute to current debates on the ‘quality’ of childcare provision for preschool children. The theoretical framework for this study draws upon concepts of 'quality' in childcare, to discuss the argued importance of increasing access to and raising standards of childcare for children’s cognitive development, for women’s labour market participation and for reducing poverty. The analysis comes from an ESRC funded study entitled ‘Provision and use of preschool childcare in Britain’. This paper focuses on examination of childcare provision by the formal childcare workforce and presents results from a secondary analysis of the UK’s Labour Force Survey, Childcare and Early Years Providers Survey, Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, and Ofsted registration data. The 2005-2014 results show a highly gendered (98% female), low valued workforce in which qualifications are modestly rising (12% increase over time in NVQ level 3) but persistently low paid (on average £6.60 per hour) compared with other occupations (£13.10 per hour). The study also finds a shrinkage in the childcare workforce - of around five per cent in Britain since 2005 (from 329k in 2005-07 to 313k in 2012-14) – and more people describing themselves as childminders in the LFS than are registered with Ofsted, suggesting a possible growth in illegal childminding. The implications of these findings raise questions about what the British childcare workforce will look like in the future, who will do childcare work in the future, and whether it is possible to achieve ‘good quality’, ‘affordable childcare’ and ‘decent pay’ for British childcare workers. These issues are important for the future regulation of the British ‘childcare’ workforce and policy development in this vital area.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 11-17. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-4
Pub. Date: January 05, 2016
11104 Views4656 Downloads3 Likes
Breaking Barriers for the Inclusion of Persons with Disability in National Development
Opinion Paper
People with disabilities (PWD) have the same rights as everyone else in the community. Most people with disabilities have limited access to education and skills training due to a combination of factors including: the lack of a coherent national policy and technical support system to address their particular learning/education/ employment/empowerment needs. Particular needs and issues affecting people with disabilities generally are ignored in the national development agenda and their well-being is often treated as a matter of welfare rather than as a fundamental human right. On the other hand, people with disabilities lack the means to advocate for and claim their rights as citizens. As such, little formal effort has been made to effectively address their basic needs with regards to access to basic social services including education, skills training and sustainable livelihood opportunities. In light of this and recognising that education is a fundamental human right for all, as well as a key instrument of development and social empowerment, The Breaking Barriers For Inclusion Of People With Disability In National Development aims to assist people with disabilities to gain access to quality education, government services, natural resources and to raise people with disabilities’ consciousness about their fundamental human rights. In order to address the challenges faced by people with disabilities and in particular, to enable and include them in national development, there is the need to empower them by removing socioeconomic and cultural barriers to their development as well as by creating an environment supportive of inclusive social progress.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 8-10. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-3
Pub. Date: December 30, 2015
7898 Views2978 Downloads4 Likes
The Application of the Method of Dimensional Analysis When Solving Problems
Original Research
When solving problems, a number of methods are applied in physics, that are targeted towards simplifying the problem solution and making it accessible for students to master. The method of dimensional analysis was observed in the article, as an effective means of solving lots of problems.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 5-7. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-2
Pub. Date: December 28, 2015
12471 Views3804 Downloads4 Likes
Representations Based Physics Instruction to Enhance Students’ Problem Solving
Original Research
Physicists use multiple representations such as sketches, motion diagrams, force diagrams, graphs, and mathematical equations to represent concepts. This study probed the effect of utilizing multiple representations while learning physics and solving physics problem. The samples of this study are the first year of senior high school (in 2013) in Pontianak district-West Kalimantan. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied to identify students’ representation, to analyze students’ score and to acquire the effect of multiple representations after students learning the concept. The result shows that students who employed more than one representation such as motion diagram, force diagram while solving the problem got higher score than students did not. This indicates that multiple representations can be effective to enhance students’ understanding of physics concept as well as problem solving skills.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2016, 4(1), 1-4. DOI: 10.12691/education-4-1-1
Pub. Date: December 16, 2015
11899 Views5097 Downloads11 Likes