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Volume 3, Issue 4

Probability Concepts in Primary School
Original Research
In recent years, many countries have tried to incorporate the probability concepts into the curriculum of primary school. The researchers disagree as to what the age of children dealing with probability contents should be. The aim of this study was to investigate the grade of understanding of the probability concepts in primary school students depending on their age and their gender. 404 pupils of the second to the sixth grade of elementary school participated in the study. It has been concluded that the majority of students was able to recognize different events and categorize them depending on their likelihood. The major difference in their abilities was noticed between the children of the second grade and those of the third grade whereas it has been experienced that girls performed better in all the tasks and in all the grades except for the fourth grade in which boys present a slightly better score.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 535-540. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-21
Pub. Date: April 19, 2015
13883 Views5038 Downloads14 Likes
Determining the Cultural Identity of a Child through Folk Literature
Original Research
The concept of cultural identity is characterized by many dimensions and being investigated in several studies of culture and many social theories. Cultural identity is recognized and determined through the interplay of different identifying elements such as location, language, ethnicity, myths, religious culture, history, art and traditions that make up the national cultural heritage. Folk Literature is a prime scientific area through which a child develops his identity and physiognomy, as it points out the diverse nature of things during the pedagogical process. This fact should be taken into account by educators so that they can substantially and effectively guide children to find real truth and knowledge and, at the same time, realize their true essence through tradition. Therefore, tradition, which involves the cultural heritage of centuries, has the power to consciously or unconsciously penetrate into the soul of a child, which shapes his identity at an immature stage of development. Our intervention focuses on folk tales, folk songs, proverbs, myths and legends.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 527-534. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-20
Pub. Date: April 19, 2015
12721 Views5175 Downloads28 Likes
Determinants of Drop-out among Public Islamic School Girls in the Techiman Municipality
Original Research
The study was to investigate into the factors that inform decisions for Islamic girl children to drop out of school, with special reference to parental attitude. Data were collected using questionnaire and structured interview. Fifty Techiman girl children of the Islamic background and their parents who were randomly selected formed the population for the study. Data were analysed using multiple regression and frequency tables. The findings of the study point to five factors two of which are social in nature and three of which are academic in nature, as responsible for the high rate of dropout among Islamic school girls in the Techiman municipality. The study established that contrary to the general perception that parents have to be blamed for dropout among school girls, parent of these Islamic schools girls have positive attitude towards their wards’ education. Discussion of the result were made and conclusions drawn. Recommendations were made.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 514-526. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-19
Pub. Date: April 17, 2015
24210 Views10378 Downloads12 Likes
Preparation of Mathematics Teachers: Lessons from Review of Literature on Teachers’ Knowledge, Beliefs, and Teacher Education
Original Research
Teachers’ mathematics knowledge has been known to have a significant impact on instructional practices. This paper discusses research on teachers’ mathematics knowledge. The paper has been summarised in five main areas: (a) the role of subject matter knowledge in teaching and learning, (b) teachers’ beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning, (c) beliefs and beliefs-in-practice: inconsistencies, (d) teacher education and its impact on instructional practices, and (e) future research on teachers’ mathematics knowledge. The review indicated that teachers are critical factors in the learning of mathematics and the extents of their content and pedagogical knowledge do determine students’ achievement. Also, the paper acceded to the view that, a teacher’s memories from the school years is a central influencing factor that affects its mathematics related beliefs, hence there is a need to enhance pre-service teachers’ positive attitude towards mathematics during training. The paper suggested further areas of research should look at: different theoretically-and empirically distinction in content knowledge for teaching and investigate their relationship, separately and in combination, to student achievement; whether mathematics teachers’ knowledge affects their lesson planning strategies and whether the provision of ‘mathematical knowledge for teaching’ by teacher training institutions improve pre-service teachers’ beliefs about mathematics and mathematics teaching. The paper concluded that, mathematics teacher education programme should provide pre-service teachers with awareness of conception of mathematics which may influence their teaching.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 505-513. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-18
Pub. Date: April 16, 2015
17511 Views5828 Downloads17 Likes
Guided Reflection Model: How Executive Coaching Can Assist Organizational Leaders Enhance Their Creativity, Innovation and Wisdom
Original Research
This paper outlines how executive coaching can assist organizational leaders engage in a guided process of reflection to enhance their creativity, innovation and wisdom. The conceptual model proposed in this paper is an extension of the Cognitive-Experiential Theory (CET; Epstein, 2014) and the recently developed Cognitive-Experiential Leadership Model (CELM; Cerni, Curtis & Colmar, 2015). Empirical research has shown that people are continually influenced by two information processing systems; the rational system, which is a verbal reasoning system, and the experiential system, which automatically learns from experience (Epstein, 2014). The degree of influence varies along a dimension from negligible to almost complete dominance, depending on the context, affect and understanding of self (Denes-Raj & Epstein, 1994; Epstein, 1998b; Epstein, 2014; Handley, Newstead, & Wright, 2000). The proposed Guided Reflection Model (GRM) complements the CELM by suggesting that the executive coach can play an integral role in guiding the leader to better understand how the integration of the context, affect and self, that is continually under the influence of the rational and experiential systems, can enhance creativity, innovation and wisdom.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 495-504. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-17
Pub. Date: April 16, 2015
10624 Views5443 Downloads14 Likes
Effects of Insurgency on Universal Basic Education in Borno State of Nigeria
Original Research
The study investigated effects of insurgency on universal basic education in Borno State. Basic education is the first level of education for children at primary 1 level to basic 9 which is the junior secondary school level in Nigeria. However, achieving education for all Nigerian children, Borno state need a secured teaching and learning environment. The study examined the effect of insurgent activities such as abduction of pupils and attacks on teachers in basic schools of Borno State. The sample for the study was 270 teachers of basic schools, selected on the basis of 10 teachers from each of the 27 local government area that constitute Borno State. The instrument for data collection was a 20 items questionnaire title: Effect of Insurgency on Basic Education Questionnaires (EIBEQ). Two research questions were formulated, data collected were converted to mean, standard deviation and used to answer the research questions. It was therefore recommended that the Nigerian government should provide free and compulsory education to all Borno State internally displaced children, through provision of scholarship from basic school level to university. The government should show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to end the insurgency in the State and provide adequate security in schools. It was further recommended that the religious leaders should preach against violence act in their respective communities.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 490-494. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-16
Pub. Date: April 15, 2015
27710 Views5179 Downloads26 Likes
A Suggested Proposal to Implementation Quality Management System ISO-9001 in Egyptian Universities
Original Research
The study aimed at identifying the reasons for failing to obtain the ISO-9001 at most of the Egyptian universities and introducing a suggested proposal for the application of quality management system ISO-9001 in Egyptian universities, so avoid mistakes and problems in which these universities have occurred in the past when it tried to apply this system. The study used a descriptive methodology. The study provided a suggested proposal, including: The goal, foundations, requirements and steps of the application of the a suggested proposal, including the implementation mechanisms.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 483-489. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-15
Pub. Date: April 15, 2015
15579 Views4539 Downloads12 Likes
Calculus Students’ Visual Thinking of Definite Integral
Original Research
Visualization as both the product and the process of creation, interpretation and reflection upon pictures and images, is gaining increased visibility in mathematics and mathematics education. The use of diagrams to visualize definite integral concept, however, is problematic for many students and may actually hinder their problem-solving efforts. The purpose of this study, not only extends our understanding of students’ difficulties and strengths associated with visualization but also identifies types of visual image they utilized while solve integral problems. Through the detailed analyses of students' work and verbal protocols, the students with high visualization ability use of imagination images in high percentages along with algebraic representations and linking these two representations lead to the success of problem solving. The students with low visualization ability use of memory images. It is discovered that students can produce imagination images that play a significant role in a problem solving process. As such, a process of visualization allows an articulation between representations to produce another representation that could help students solve given problems.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 476-482. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-14
Pub. Date: April 15, 2015
15248 Views6377 Downloads14 Likes
Discourse Changes in Brazilian Teacher Education
Original Research
Over the last two decades, Brazil has promoted almost one hundred percent access of the population in school age to mainstream schools. At the first stage, the epistemological basis of this change was the relation among the subjects across the curriculum. However, it was imposed through top-down processes of continuing teacher education, disconnected of the real conditions of schools, which resulted in demotivating teachers. In fact, it was a process of transcontextual techniques used as strategies in a variety of contexts, characterized mainly by disembedding practices. It was associated with salary devaluation of basic education teachers, and cut down the impact of this new curriculum; it also caused teachers to be confused and hopeless. But nowadays the adoption of the full-day in school model has allowed for changes in school activities. The need to stay at school during the whole day not only developed teachers´ awareness about their real working conditions, but also caused education policies to adapt to local practices. We carried out observation of this process in 10 schools of the state of Goiás, in the Midwest region of Brazil. In addition to the change that we have mentioned, we can note that these schools are observed by an educational institute of the third sector in teacher education. Our research can be characterized as ethnographic, with field notes of our class observation, long interviews with teachers, and archive data; it is also collaborative. Our analysis indicates that teachers are exhausted by their daily work demands. However, they have become aware of the ways in which they have gained control over their practices.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 467-475. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-13
Pub. Date: April 15, 2015
10299 Views4730 Downloads18 Likes
Open Educational Resources: Developing and Evaluating in Master of Educational Technology Learning´s Students
Original Research
The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate one Open Educational Resources (OER), identifying: (a) instructional design strategy to facilitating the meaningful learning, (b) build an OER about making concept map with quality and (c) evaluate it and contribute to OER debates. This investigation was conducted in a Mexican University (Master of Technology Learning). The epistemological orientation was a constructivist philosophical stance, research paradigm used was mixed. The method used was Educational Technology Research and Development (R&D).The research was a diagnosis and the development was an OER. This method is a design-based research to develop new products to improve education. For Kozma (2000) this method, “demonstrate that this research is now at the center of some of the most creative, original, and powerful work in education”. We applied a three level process of formative evaluation proposed by Dick, Carey & Carey (2005) and used their recommend instruments: (1) trying out OER one on one; (2) a small group tryout with eight students; and (3) a field trial with a whole class of learners (twenty students).After, we did a summative evaluation by seven experts. The participants were eighteen students. The research findings were: a new OER was created to facilitate the meaningful learning about making concept map, summative evaluation was conducted an evaluation about the OER´s design strategy by seven experts to provide a professional and qualified judgment and to determine the overall value of the instruction, an analysis and interpretation of the evaluations. The instruments were questionnaires.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 460-466. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-12
Pub. Date: April 14, 2015
11018 Views5793 Downloads12 Likes
The Management of Power and Ethics in Higher Education
Original Research
This study aimed to determine the presence of micropolitics in an institution of higher education in the educational community, located in the eastern state of Yucatan, Mexico, focused on two areas: the management of power and ethics of the participants.Organizations exist for a reality of daily interactions of people struggling to put their own interests, but this should not be allowed to forget the human factor that everyone should consider. Do not forget that human beings, beings who will become the foundation of society, and that may be the ones to conform or direct social groups to which they belong now are educated. Apparently disciplinary groups combined in its essence both sociological aspects as academics, recognizable in the close relationship of their negotiations or scope, according to their resources that count. There may be specific to a field that includes a mooring of meanings and social interactions structural conditions. Teachers who have long been performing in the organization, they want to continue staying with increasing benefits; those that carry less time, subsisting with intent to occupy a privileged place and recognized. This entails all the dynamics of school micropolitics. Everything is a function of the interest, which in many cases render material and symbolic type.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 456-459. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-11
Pub. Date: April 14, 2015
8306 Views3551 Downloads23 Likes
Student Self Grading: Perception vs. Reality
Original Research
The purpose of student self-grading is explored to discover not only students’ perception of grades but their experience with self-grading in college. Before student self-grading may be deemed a valid practice of accessing student learning, it is important for researchers to define how students perceive letter grades. Data was collected via a brief email survey from 144 undergraduate Public Health majors at a mid-size liberal arts college. Results indicate that students used three major categories in defining their perceptions of what each letter grade represent – Knowledge, Effort and Assignment, along with three minor categories – Learning, Critical Thinking and Success. Results also indicate that only about a third of participants actually engaged in self-grading in college and out of those who, do about 65% indicate that they graded themselves harder than their professors. These findings have implications for the discrepancies that may exist between professors vs. students’ perception of grade representation and ultimately the effectiveness of student self-grading in the classroom.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 450-455. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-10
Pub. Date: April 13, 2015
10399 Views3514 Downloads14 Likes
Implementation of a Technology-supported Three-stage Classroom Feedback System for Promotion of Self-regulation and Assessment of Student and Teacher Performance
Original Research
Classroom feedback is essential to facilitate self-regulation and assessment of student and teacher performance. Here, the implementation of a technology (clicker)-supported classroom feedback system is described which provides students with three different levels of feedback: First, a direct computerized quantitative feedback; second, a dialogical external feedback from peers; and third, a class-wide qualitative external feedback from the teacher. This easy to set-up three-stage classroom feedback system which enables the application of several principles of good feedback practice triggered measurable learner and teacher self-regulation thereby improving the quality of learning and teaching.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 446-449. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-9
Pub. Date: April 07, 2015
10789 Views4840 Downloads15 Likes
Mathematics Teachers’ Response towards Teacher Empowerment at Junior High School in Indonesia
Original Research
The research objective was to analyze teachers’ response towards the implementation of mathematics teacher empowerment after the implementation of certification consisted of six dimensions: namely 1) the involvement in making decision; 2) professional development; 3) status; 4) confidence; 5) autonomy; 6) influence. The approach conducted in this research was quantitative and qualitative. Data were collected through the instrument and interview by the data source was mathematic teachers from 12 Junior High Schools in Malang consisted of 8 private schools and 4 public schools with the number of the respondents was 38 teachers. The result showed that: the involvement in making decision had the mean 3.03; professional development was 2.67; status was 3.23; confidence 3.16; autonomy was 3.29 and the influence was 3.36. These six aspects are categorized as good except professional development, which was satisfactory.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 439-445. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-8
Pub. Date: April 04, 2015
11576 Views5067 Downloads16 Likes
Improving Environmental Awareness of the 4-6 Years Old Children through Neurosensory Instructional Approach
Original Research
The research was aimed to study the role of neourosensory instructional approach in improving environmentalalal awareness of the of the 4-6 years old children. The instructional approach was applied in the form of multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction, in which, the instruction was fuctioned as bridges to improve the children environmental awareness. The eight types of mutiple intelligences used as bridges to empower environment awareness of the children were consisted of: (1) verbal linguistic intelligence, (2) logical mathematical intelligence, (3) visual spatial intelligence, (4) intrapersonal intelligence, (5) interpersonal intelligence, (6) bodily kinesthetic intelligence, (7) music rhythmic intelligence, and (8) naturalistic intelligence. The research was used mix method research, in which, it applied quantitative and qualitavite research methodologies. The mix method research was apllied in the form of action research, particulary, Martini Jamaris’ action research model. The research was participanted by inclusive group of 15 children, who came from the low social economics background. The result of the research revealed that environmental awareness of the 15 children were increased. It could analysize from the difference between the cildren average score on pre- assessement of environmentalalal awareness which was 90.40 and their average score on post-assessment which was 188. 53. Therefore, the children envirinmental awareness was increased 230. 70 % Beside that, the research revealed that verbal linguistic intelligence was fuction as the most effective brige to improve the 4-6 years old cildren’s environmentalal awareness.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 427-438. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-7
Pub. Date: April 03, 2015
23286 Views9888 Downloads19 Likes
Attaining Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the Primary School Classroom
Original Research
In consideration of the need for pupils to start using English as a second language (L2) beyond the 2-3 hour a week compulsory “English lesson” in Italian primary schools, the new Italian National Curriculum Guidelines encourage multilingual education. This official stimulus could lead to the achievement of a more bilingual classroom with increased usage of English throughout the school day, especially through the use of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) strategies. However, teachers are often at a loss as to how to accomplish this. They must be helped to realize that it can be easier than they think, especially through the use of new technologies, and in spite of what they consider to be inadequate preparation. They need clear, practical indications of easy, brief activities that they can carry out daily in English in their classrooms in the various subject areas and they need to be familiar with the multimedia opportunities that exist to achieve this goal. This experimental project presents practical, flexible materials and ideas that can be used to introduce topics or to revise contents in all subjects while encouraging the use of L2 instead of Italian (L1). The materials developed can be easily adapted for use in other foreign languages (L2) and in lower secondary education for a third foreign language (L3) (CEFR 0-A1). This CLIL project aims to facilitate primary school teachers’ introduction of English into all subjects. This paper was presented at the 9th International CLIL Conference, Think CLIL 2014, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Venice, Italy, 28-30 August 2014.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 418-426. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-6
Pub. Date: March 26, 2015
16397 Views8157 Downloads19 Likes
A Case Study on Action Research: Barri Gòtic Barcelona
Original Research
The Design Degree program at Elisava Escuela Superior de Diseño e Ingeniería de Barcelona includes tools and mechanisms to focus students on the users, the social context and communication. The idea behind this is that greater density should be sought in the projects and a fabric of relationships should be generated in a social and geographical environment ranging from the most local to the most global. As part of its “Products, context and user” subject, Elisava planned action research during the 2010-11 academic year between a group of graphic design students and the members of the 'Asociación de vecinos del barri Gòtic' (AVVBG or Gothic Quarter Community Association), the Gothic Quarter being the district of Barcelona where the School is situated. As the AVVBG has few members, it considered the need to develop new communicative strategies. The teachers provided the students with the traditional social science methods (documentary sources, participant observation, in-depth interviews) with two goals: the first, that they might become deeply aware of the district's social reality, its relationship with the rest of the city and the true needs of the AVVBG (diagnosis); and the second, to establish bonds with the members of the AVVBG that would lead to starting spaces for reflection, joint creation and joint participation in designing the association’s new communication strategies. The changes between the students' first proposal made with the typical conventional project methodology, and the following, after the action research and the users, students and tutors' reply, give a good account of the values and challenges of this methodology and enable design discipline self reflection.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 412-417. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-5
Pub. Date: March 26, 2015
11518 Views5361 Downloads19 Likes
Application of Cues, Prompts, Probes, Questions and Gestures (CPPQG) in Physics Teaching and Learning
Original Research
This study was an action research using cues, prompts, probes, gestures and questioning strategy to remediate some learning difficulties of students in some physics concepts. This was done by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data using teacher constructed test. Pre-test, was used to assess students’ prior knowledge and post-test to determine the final state of the learners. A sample of 40 Level 200 Geography Education students of the Department of Science Education, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria, participated in the study. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, percentages, paired sample t-test and the correlation statistic. The results obtained showed an improvement in students’ understanding of basic concepts in optics, heat and mechanics. Students performed relatively better in optics (80% of the students) scoring 45% and higher; followed by thermal physics (heat) (70 %) and mechanics (50%). The post-test mean score was higher than the pre-test. Also, paired sample t-test was significant at 0.05 alpha level and df of 39. Similarly, a moderately high and significant correlation coefficient of 0.70 was calculated between the pre and post test scores. Based on the findings, it is recommended that teachers should integrate CPPQG into all forms of physics instruction in today’s changing world of technologies. This is a major way to make its learning “interesting” to the average learner who ordinarily may not be able to make the kind of “connections” expected in maximizing physics teaching and learning.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 406-411. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-4
Pub. Date: March 25, 2015
14092 Views5712 Downloads19 Likes
The National Minimum Standard on Early Child Care Centers (ECCC) in Nigeria and the Status of Pre-Primary Education in Uhunmwode Local Government Area of Edo State
Editorial
Pre-Primary Education Programme has been shown to bring critical gains to children’s social, emotional and cognitive development. The study therefore, Evaluates public Pre-Primary Education in Uhunmwode Local Government Area of Edo state: to find out whether the directive given by the Federal Government to Ministry of Education across the federation to establish PPE in all public primary schools in 2009 has been obeyed and to determine the extent to which they meet the guidelines as spelt out in the National Minimum Standard on Early Child Care Centers (ECCC) of 2007. Six research questions were raised to get the study. The study employed a descriptive survey research. A purposive sampling Techniques of (20) Twenty Pre-primary schools were selected from the 71 public schools with pre-primary school in Uhunmwode Local Government Area of Edo state. One instrument that was used, is a check list based on the contents of the environment models of the Pre-Primary Education as spelt out in the National Minimum Standard for ECCC in Nigeria. The data shows that the Standard of Pre-Primary Education fall short of the expectation that will help Nigeria to attain the desired position among nations of the world. Recommendations were made to the government to; build more classrooms, provide early childhood education curriculum for teachers and provide play facilities in these public pre-primary schools in Uhunmwode Local Government Area to enhance the intellectual, emotional, physical and healthy growth of the children.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 399-405. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-3
Pub. Date: March 23, 2015
28072 Views7285 Downloads18 Likes
Different but the Same: Doctoral Students' Experience of Multiprofessional Education
Original Research
Generic Professional Doctorate programmes provide students with the opportunity to study in multiprofessional cohorts. Although the professional doctorate student experience has been examined, the value of engaging in multiprofessional doctoral education has not been explored. The study aimed to explore the personal meanings that doctoral students ascribe to the value of studying within a multiprofessional context. A qualitative approach was employed. Data were collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews. A thematic analysis was conducted on the data. 23 doctoral students over four years of the programme participated in the study. Different but the same was a major theme that emerged from the data. The multiprofessional context and the 'difference' between the students offered identifiable enhancements to the academic process which were captured in three subthemes; 1) finding new worlds 2) getting clear and being clear and 3) travelling alone together. The study findings suggest that the multiprofessional context, mediated through a pedagogical approach of the contact hypothesis, enhanced the quality of the educational experience and outcomes.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 393-398. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-2
Pub. Date: March 23, 2015
7898 Views3151 Downloads17 Likes
The Politics of Conflict over Oil in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Review of the Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies of the Oil Companies
Original Research
This article evaluates the nature of corporate social responsibility related oil conflict with emphasis on the key reasons for the conflict in the Niger Delta region that has remained impoverished despite the region's huge contributions to the Nigerian economy for many decades. The problem is that the region has been underdeveloped despite its contributions to the national economy. In fact, observations show that the corporate social responsibility projects of the oil companies are inadequate and therefore require a change of strategy. The methodology is a combination of the qualitative data, especially secondary and primary sources including observation of the situation in some oil producing communities, and also the use of the Nigeria Watch database which identifies the sources and maps and the trends of violent deaths in the country. From observations, the resistant movements were formed in the region to address environmental rights violations and enhance economic development. In terms of theoretical and practical significance, the study argues, based on the stakeholder's theory that there is a direct relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and conflict, considering the disconnect between the community development projects and the actualisation of human needs. Their capacity to differentiate between what the people want and their actual needs would end the attacks on the oil workers by restive youths. The article has suggested possible ways of resolving this conflict.
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American Journal of Educational Research. 2015, 3(4), 383-392. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-4-1
Pub. Date: March 22, 2015
40107 Views9751 Downloads21 Likes