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Volume 10, Issue 5

Building and Using Teaching Resources Experiential Activities Grade 1 in Vietnam
Based on theoretical and practical studies, we design and provide resources to teach Grade 1 Experiential Activities. At the same time, through experiments, we verify the possibility and efficiency of using the resource system. In some primary schools, we make recommendations on the coordination of resource use and the organization of Experiential Activities among the research team, schools, and teachers to improve the quality of educational activities.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 371-377. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-14
Pub. Date: May 28, 2022
The Medical Diagnostics Major: Gateway to Medical School and Physician Assistant School
Original Research
Medical diagnostics, offered at the University of Delaware College of Health Sciences, represents a novel major in higher education. This major incorporates courses similar to the preclinical content of professional schools along with the standard science and mathematics prerequisites. Students have the option of taking a pre-physician assistant (PA) concentration or non-pre-PA concentration. Students in the non-pre-PA concentration typically apply to medical or dental school, while students in the pre-PA concentration apply to PA school. The medical diagnostics major began in 2013 in a 2+2 format. Students completed prerequisite courses in their first two years and then applied to the permanent major, medical diagnostics. In 2021, the format for both concentrations transitioned to a direct admissions model. A study was conducted with the goal of ascertaining if there was an increase or decrease in enrollment from 2020 to 2021. Results of the study indicated a ten percent increase in enrollment for Medical Diagnostics pre -PA and a nineteen percent decrease in enrollment for Medical Diagnostics non-pre PA. This paper outlines the critical role of the pre-health advisor for students who plan to apply to medical school or PA school as well as administrative procedures associated with a 2+2 model compared to a direct admissions model.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 361-370. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-13
Pub. Date: May 25, 2022
Teachers’ Affordances in Using Academic E-Portfolio
Original Research
The advances in technology have paved the way for student-centered learning environment which is expected to allow higher students’ engagement, active participation, deep meaningful learning, and critical thinking. One of the technology applications which have gained popularity at the beginning of the 1990s is the use of e-portfolio. The development of e-portfolio affordances over a period of time has yet to be explored to ascertain its usefulness particularly in the area of teacher education. This research was conducted to determine the teacher’s affordances in using academic e-portfolio among the teachers in a schools division in the Philippines. Using the descriptive inferential research design, 120 teachers were identified through stratified random sampling design. Data revealed that (1) the respondents have high affordances in terms of basic technical skills; (2) age group affects the basic technical skills of the respondents, teachers who have less than three years in service had higher basic technical skills compared to teachers who are more than four years in service; (3) the respondents practice e-portfolio in their respective fields most of the times; and (4) the respondents who have less than three years in service had higher affordance in academic e-portfolio practices compared to other counterparts. On the other hand, they have comparable results when grouped by school affiliation and grade level taught.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 355-360. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-12
Pub. Date: May 24, 2022
Phenomenon-based Conversational Microlesson Packets on Students’ Mathematics Achievement and Appreciation
Original Research
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Phenomenon-Based Learning Conversational Microlesson Packets (PBCMPs) learning material to the mathematics achievement and appreciation among Grade 7 students, who are officially enrolled during the School Year 2021-2022 at Maria Cristina National High School, Iligan City. Two sections with 31 students each class were used as participants of the study and randomly selected as control and experimental groups which employed a pretest-posttest control group research design. The level of mathematics achievement of students was measured using the validated 30-item mathematics achievement test (MAT) and the mathematics appreciation of the students was measured using their scores in taking the Mathematics Interest Inventory (MII). Mean, standard deviation, and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyze the data collected. Results revealed that embedding phenomenon-based learning into the developed PBCMPs learning material helped develop the students’ mathematics achievement and appreciation. Hence, integration of phenomenon-based learning in any mathematics learning material is recommended to help uplift students’ achievement and affective state in learning mathematics. Furthermore, similar studies may also be conducted to a broader scope using various population in different learning institutions for refinement of the method.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 349-354. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-11
Pub. Date: May 22, 2022
Magical Thinking in First-Year Medical Students at a Public University in Mexico City
Original Research
Magical thinking is the attribution of the origin or relationship of events without causality to certain events. Some aspects of magical thinking persist into adulthood due to ontological confusions. In university students, some beliefs related to magical thinking continue that are in contrast with their higher studies. In medical students this contrast influences the approach to the beliefs of their patients. This work sought to comprehend the presence and characteristics of magical thinking in students who are in their first year of medical school. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,521 students of first year medical career, from a public university in Mexico City. An instrument to evaluate magical thinking consisting of 5 one-dimensional scales was modified and validated: Supernatural beliefs, supernatural experiences, psychic powers, animism, and skepticism. 36% believed in supernatural events, 32% said they had had supernatural experiences, 10% believed that psychic powers existed and 18% believed in luck, 71% considered that these beliefs were the product of ignorance and deception. The study of beliefs and practices related to magical thinking is fundamental to practice a culturally competent medicine.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 342-348. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-10
Pub. Date: May 19, 2022
Project W.A.T.C.H: Its Contexts, Inputs, Processes and Products in the Department of Education
Original Research
This study aimed 1.) to describe how the teachers live or manifest the core values of honesty and punctuality in implementing Project WATCH along with Advocacy, Training/Orientation, Curriculum Integration, WATCH Club Activities, and Awards and Recognition using the CIPP Model of Evaluation. 2.) to develop an advocacy and implementation model on how Project WATCH core values could build punctuality and honesty among public school teachers. Regarding Project WATCH implementation, On the Context level focused on Advocacy, most of the respondents were not well informed about the goal, mission, and vision of the WATCH program. On the Input level, investigated the training/orientation and curriculum Instruction. Project WATCH activities were not well implemented because there was no budget allocation from the MOOE; they did not include it in the Annual Implementation Plan or School Improvement Plan. Most of the respondents said they have no specific training for Project WATCH. The process level focused on the description of the WATCH Club Activities. Most schools had WATCH Club for pupils only to manage the activities in school guided by the School Project WATCH Coordinator and the School Head. When it comes to teachers, there was no Organized WATCH Club. There was no Training and Orientation on Project WATCH, which was supposed to be one of the essential activities to be managed or spearheaded by WATCH Club Officers. The product level described the Program's outcome, which is awards and recognition. From the findings, most schools did not give awards to teachers. Most schools implemented Project WATCH, They did Advocacy through the hanging of tarpaulin inside the school premises, but most of the schools launch in June or any month of the year to implement the project. There was no budget allocated for this Program teacher and parents shared the expenses for the activities, and they did no evaluation done at the end of the year.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 332-341. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-9
Pub. Date: May 19, 2022
Educational Effects and Changes in Children’s Appreciation of Nature through Community-based Education: A Case Study of Satoumi Learning in Japan
Original Research
This study investigates the educational effects and changes in children’s appreciation of nature through community-based education, namely, satoumi learning in elementary and junior high schools in the Noto Peninsula, Japan. This study considers ocean education as a community-based education that uses natural resources and compares changes in children’s appreciation of nature before and after receiving ocean education as an educational effect. A structured questionnaire was administered to every elementary school (grades 4-6) and junior high school student (years 1 and 2) in Noto town in 2016 and 2017 (n = 420). The survey was distributed to the same students through the Noto Town Board of Education in 2016 and 2017. Using paired and unpaired t-tests, we found a significant educational effect on students’ relationships with the community, particularly for students in the first year of ocean education. The educational effect in the second year was comparatively lower, though the students’ appreciation of nature significantly increased in the second year. In particular, the students’ relationship with the ocean and settlement intention decreased in the higher grades of elementary and junior high school. However, the findings suggest that continuing ocean education can not only enhance students’ relationships with the community but also foster their appreciation of nature. Regarding gender differences, girls had a lower frequency of visiting the ocean after one year of satoumi learning, though overall, they tended to hold positive attitudes toward local nature. In addition, the student responses to many questionnaire items differed significantly according to whether the school was located in an inland or coastal area. Finally, after the second year, the benefits of ocean education were limited. Therefore, it is recommended to develop more effective learning programs for higher grades and inland schools.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 323-331. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-8
Pub. Date: May 19, 2022
Parallelism between Divine Standards, Related Subjects and Chemistry of Life Essentials
Original Research
Some divine standards match essentials of the chemistry of life in number and in structure. The investigated divine standards are the following: biblical quotes, icons, Christian religious art, the miraculous food, the holy trinity, the Jewish menorah and the Islamic geometry including the Kaäba. Divine standards help explaining the match or parallelism between the human (hands) models, the Ptolemaic parallelism (the zodiac constellations and the classical solar system) and life chemistry essentials. The related subjects are the following: (1) The cosmic modeling of the genetic code including the reason for the two Earth-Moon-Sun representatives, selection of third position synonymous codons, genetic code crystallography, and the accordance of encoded amino acids to the number of haploid human chromosomes. (2) An addendum and correction to the Vigeland tetrahedral human model.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 313-322. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-7
Pub. Date: May 19, 2022
The Level of Acquaintance of the Teacher with His Students and the Quality of the Relationship between Them in Elementary Schools of the Arab Minority in Israel
Original Research
The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between the teacher's acquaintance with his students and the teacher-student relationship in elementary schools of the Arab minority in Israel. The teacher's acquaintance with his students and the quality of teacher-student relations and their contribution to the emotional well-being of the child present an important and vital challenge to the Arab education system in Israel, especially in light of the inherent exclusion and discrimination of the State of Israel's institutions vis-à-vis this education system over the years. Many studies speak of the importance of the teacher's acquaintance with his students and the impact of this acquaintance on the nature of their relationship, which engenders the well-being of the students and their success in their studies at school. The subjects of this study are teachers and students from the elementary schools in the Arab education system in Israel, selected in a random sample, which included 100 teachers and 150 students from grades 5 to 6. The research tools are two questionnaires: “The teacher's acquaintance with the student”, for the teachers; and “The teacher and I”, for the students. Analysis of the findings was conducted using SPSS software. The findings revealed that, in elementary schools, the Arab teacher's level of recognition of the personal, economic and social situation of his students is high. No distinct positive correlation was found between the level of the teacher's acquaintance with his pupils and the quality and level of their relationship. There were significant differences in the Arab teacher’s acquaintance with his students and in the teacher-student relationship, in relation to background variables of the teachers. These differences will be enlarged on later.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 304-312. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-6
Pub. Date: May 15, 2022
Psychological Contract and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Government Aided Primary Schools in Uganda
Original Research
As primary school teachers continue to operate under dynamic circumstances, schools have become more reliant on those who are willing without force to contribute to successful change within and outside the school environment regardless of formal job assignments. While some achievements have been scored, the performance of primary schools in Uganda is low and this has been attributed to unpatriotic organizational behaviors exhibited by teachers. The study was premised on investigating the relationship between relational psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior, relationship between transactional psychological contract and organizational behavior and relationship between balanced psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior. Sampling procedure involved a two stage sampling where by cluster sampling was used at the first stage while convenience sampling was used at the second stage. The total sample size considered for the current study was 403 of which 189 were male teacher and 214 were female teachers. From the findings of the study, it emerged that transactional psychological capital negatively influences citizenship behavior among teachers in primary schools. Relational and balanced psychological contract were found to be positively related to citizenship behavior.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 298-303. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-5
Pub. Date: May 13, 2022
A Study on the Satisfaction and Performance of the First Year Students of Advanced Education Program at National Economics University when Applying Internet in Teaching English Listening Skills
Among four language skills, it is well known that listening comprehension plays a very important role in foreign language teaching, especially with young learners. And in the era of 4.0 technology, applying internet in teaching listening skills is necessary. The application of internet-assisted learning in teaching English at Advanced Education Program at National Economics University is still limited and needs more thorough studies. Therefore, the researchers would like to conduct a research into the use of this teaching and learning approach to the development of English listening skills for first year students of Advanced Education Program (AEP) at National Economics University. Importantly and interestingly, the study focuses on analyzing their satisfaction and performance when applying internet in teaching listening skills. From the investigation and analysis, suggestions would be given to teachers and students to enhance the use of internet so as to increase students’ satisfaction and performance in listening lessons.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 288-297. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-4
Pub. Date: May 07, 2022
Integrity of Mathematics Classroom Assessment in the New Normal
Original Research
All teachers and other stakeholders must be committed to evaluating students' learning in a genuine and honest manner. This study aimed to explore the teachers', students', parents', and school administrators’ perspectives on the integrity of mathematics classroom assessment in the new normal, as well as their experienced challenges and difficulties on the assessment of learning practices. A quantitative descriptive research design was undertaken in the study utilizing validated survey questionnaires. This was conducted to fourteen (14) Junior High Schools in the division of Misamis Oriental comprising large, medium, and small-sized secondary schools. Actual respondents of the study were 67 mathematics teachers; 1,481 G10 students; 1,037 G10 parents; and 24 school administrators. Descriptive statistics was used for the data processing. Analysis of the data revealed that under the new normal, teachers and parents’ perception on mathematics classroom assessment had a low level of integrity, whereas students and school administrators thought it had a high level of integrity. Parents believed that the majority of high school students do cheat. The findings suggested that the teachers' observations of low integrity were backed up by the parents' observations, as they are now the facilitators of learning at home. With regard to the experienced challenges and difficulties, the integrity of mathematics classroom assessment is a critical concern and a challenge for teachers, parents, and students. More research is needed to develop effective preventive measures to mitigate assessment dishonesty and to give a long-term alternative way to provide high-quality education especially during an emergency circumstance.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 282-287. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-3
Pub. Date: May 07, 2022
Inquiry-Based Online General Education Mathematics (GEM) Reviewer Promoting Mock Licensure Examination for Teachers Performance
Original Research
The study aimed to determine the effects of the inquiry-based “Online General Education Mathematics GEM Reviewer” on the mathematics performance of the 130 graduating teacher education students who are enrolled in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) Review subjects in 1st Semester of School Year 2021 – 2022 at Caraga State University Cabadbaran City and University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Cagayan de Oro City. The study used the One-Group Pretest-posttest Design to determine the performance of the Graduating Teacher Education Students in the area of General Education Mathematics. This is an experiment where one group undergoes a pre-experimental (Pretest) evaluation followed by an investigation of the effects of the “Online GEM Reviewer” on the mathematics performance of the users and subsequently, a post-experimental evaluation (Posttest). The researcher employed a Mathematics Performance Test to determine the level of the knowledge of the students. Mean, standard deviation and percentage were used to establish the level of mathematics performance of the Graduating Teacher Education Students and t-test was used to determine the effects of the usage of the “Online GEM Reviewer”. The results revealed that the use of Inquiry-Based “Online GEM Reviewer” influence the mathematics performance of the Graduating Teacher Education Students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 276-281. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-2
Pub. Date: May 05, 2022
Students’ Attitude towards Biology and Academic Achievement in Biology at Secondary Level, in Islamabad, Pakistan
Original Research
Attitude play a central role in shaping the future of individuals in the field of science. Student’s attitude towards science influences their academic performance in science. Recognizing as well as influencing their attitudes is important in educational research studies. The purpose of the present study was to identify the relationship between students’ attitude towards biology and their academic achievement in biology among 10th grade secondary level students. Sample of the study was consisted of 527 students out of which 238 were male students and 289 were female students. These students were chosen from 8 public and 6 private institutions in Islamabad. Students’ academic achievement was measured through the marks obtained by them in recently held board examination. Students’ attitude towards biology was measured by using a 25-items Likert type scale initially developed and validated by the researcher. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted using various statistical techniques like mean, standard deviation, Pearson product moment correlation, independent sample t-test, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings of the study clearly highlight that female student have more positive attitude towards biology as compare to male students. Similarly, female students have higher achievement scores as compare to male students.
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 268-275. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-1
Pub. Date: May 05, 2022