Skip Navigation Links.
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 11 (2023)</span>Volume 11 (2023)
Issue 2, Volume 11, 2023
Issue 1, Volume 11, 2023
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 10 (2022)</span>Volume 10 (2022)
Issue 12, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 11, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 10, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 9, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 8, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 7, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 6, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 5, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 4, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 3, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 2, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 1, Volume 10, 2022
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 9 (2021)</span>Volume 9 (2021)
Issue 12, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 11, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 10, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 9, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 8, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 7, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 6, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 5, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 4, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 3, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 2, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 1, Volume 9, 2021
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 8 (2020)</span>Volume 8 (2020)
Issue 12, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 11, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 10, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 9, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 8, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 7, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 6, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 5, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 4, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 3, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 2, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 1, Volume 8, 2020
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 7 (2019)</span>Volume 7 (2019)
Issue 12, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 11, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 10, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 9, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 8, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 7, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 6, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 5, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 4, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 3, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 2, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 1, Volume 7, 2019
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 6 (2018)</span>Volume 6 (2018)
Issue 12, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 11, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 10, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 9, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 8, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 7, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 6, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 5, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 4, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 3, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 2, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 1, Volume 6, 2018
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 5 (2017)</span>Volume 5 (2017)
Issue 12, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 11, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 10, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 9, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 8, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 7, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 6, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 5, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 4, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 3, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 2, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 1, Volume 5, 2017
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 4 (2016)</span>Volume 4 (2016)
Issue 20, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 19, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 18, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 17, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 16, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 15, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 14, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 13, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 12, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 11, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 10, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 9, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 8, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 7, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 6, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 5, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 4, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 3, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 2A, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 2, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 1, Volume 4, 2016
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 3 (2015)</span>Volume 3 (2015)
Issue 12B, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 12A, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 12, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 11, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 10A, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 10, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 9, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 8, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 7, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 6, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 5, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 4, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 3, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 2, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 1, Volume 3, 2015
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 2 (2014)</span>Volume 2 (2014)
Issue 12C, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 12B, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 12A, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 11A, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 12, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 11, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 10, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 9, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 8A, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 8, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 7, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 6, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 5, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 4, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 3, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 2, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 1, Volume 2, 2014
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 1 (2013)</span>Volume 1 (2013)
Issue 12, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 11, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 10, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 9, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 8, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 7, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 6, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 5, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 4, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 3, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 2, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 1, Volume 1, 2013
American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(3), 167-172
DOI: 10.12691/EDUCATION-2-3-10
Original Research

Informal Learning Environment: Summer Outdoor Science Experience

Mamta Singh-Corresponding1,

1Department of Sciences, Martin University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

Pub. Date: March 14, 2014

Cite this paper

Mamta Singh-Corresponding. Informal Learning Environment: Summer Outdoor Science Experience. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(3):167-172. doi: 10.12691/EDUCATION-2-3-10

Abstract

The Spring Mill State Park field trip was organized though university-community partnership in the summer of 2011 to expose students to outdoor learning environment. Informal Learning in outdoor environment, like all learning, can be categorized into the domains of concept knowledge, how students view themselves as learners, and the skills they require to engage in the activities of scientists. The purpose of this field trip was to give students outdoor science experience, to expose them to science learning environment outside the laboratory setting. Sixty-five, third-fifth grade students along with their parents participated in the field trip and completed the survey response. Results suggested that 49.15% student participants indicated that they have never visited a state park before this field trip. 90% of student participants indicated that the Spring Mill State Park field trip was a great experience for them. 50% student participants indicated that the Nature Center activity was their most favorite activity. 38.3% student participants indicated that they have never seen a space capsule or space suite before this field trip. Furthermore, Pearson's Chi-squared test of independence was conducted to test the hypothesis if the learning attitudes were different between male and female student participants. Free statistical software “R” version 3.0.2 (2013) was used to analyze the data. The results suggested that as the p-value was greater than the .05 significance level, the null hypothesis was not rejected that the male participants’ response to all learning attitude questions was independent of female students.

Keywords

informal learning, Chi-square test, contextual model, Spring Mill State Park

Copyright

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References

[1]  Alsop, S. & Watts, M. Unweaving time and food-chains: Two classroom exercises in scientific and emotional literacy. Canadian Journal of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, 2, 435-449. (2002).
 
[2]  Anderson, D., & Lucas, K. The effectiveness of orienting students to the physical features of a science museum prior to visitation. Research in Science Education, 27 (4), 485-495. 1997. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.springerlink.com. proxybz.lib.montana.edu/content/66g0ww416uq01714.
 
[3]  Bamberger, Y., & Tal, T. Multiple Outcomes of Class Visits to Natural History Museums: The Students' View. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17 (3), 274-284. 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Web of Science database.
 
[4]  Bloom, B. M., Englehart, E., Furst, E. H., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. New York: McKay.
 
[5]  Braund, M. & Reiss, M. (2004). Eds. Learning Science outside the Classroom, Routledge Falmer, New York, NY.
 
[6]  Bonderup Dohn, N. Situational interest of high school students who visit an aquarium. Science Education, 95 (2), 337-357. 2011. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
 
[7]  Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Hermanson, K. Intrinsic motivation in museums: Why does one want to learn? In J. H. Falk & L. D. Dierking (Eds.), Public institutions for personal learning (pp. 67-77). 1995. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums. http://edweb.sdsu.edu/courses/edtec296/assignments/csik.pdf.
 
[8]  Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education (CAISE) (2013). Retrieved on November 2nd 2013 form http://www.informalscience.org/research/wiki/Field-Trips-are-Valuable-Learning-Experiences.
 
[9]  Cosmos Corporation. (1998). A report on the evaluation of the National Science Foundation’s informal science education program. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. http://029c7c0.netsolhost.com/MSPDocs/Evaluation of Informal Science Education Program.pdf
 
[10]  Davidson, S.K., Passmore, C., & Anderson, D. (2010). Learning on Zoo Field Trips: The Interaction of the Agendas and Practices of Students, Teachers, and Zoo Educators. Science Education, 94 (1), 122-141. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Web of Science database.
 
[11]  Falk, J. & Direking, L. School field Trips: Assessing their long-term impact. Curator, 40, 211-218. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
 
[12]  Falk, J. H. & Dierking, L. D. Learning from Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Walnut Creek CA. 2000.
 
[13]  Falk, J. H. & Dierking, L. D. (2010). School Field Trips: Assessing Their Long-Term Impact. Article first published online: 24 MAY 2010.
 
[14]  Fraenkel, J. K., & Wallen, N. E. (Eds.). (2003). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. The McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. New York.
 
[15]  Hurd, D. (1997). Novelty and its relation to field trips. Education, 118, 29-35. Retrieved February 16, 2011, from EBSCO host database. 1997.
 
[16]  http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/health/Unit01/lesson01b.htm retrieved on February 27th 2014
 
[17]  http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/affective/framework.html retrieved on February 27th 2014.
 
[18]  Jarvis, T., & Pell, A. (2005). Factors influencing elementary school children's attitudes toward science before, during, and after a visit to the UK National Space Centre. 2005.
 
[19]  Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B. S., Masia B. B. (1964). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook II: Affective Domain. David McKay Company, Inc.
 
[20]  Luehmann, A. L. Students' Perspectives of a Science Enrichment Programme: Out-of-school inquiry as access. International Journal of Science Education, 31 (13), 1831-1855. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Web of Science database. 2009.
 
[21]  National Science Teachers Association. NSTA Position Statement: Informal Science Education. Retrieved from http://www.nsta.org/about/positions/informal.aspx on January 14, 2012. Science Teaching, 42 (1), 53-83. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Web of Science database. 1999.
 
[22]  Pace, S., & Tesi, R. (2004). Adult’s perception of field trips taken within grades K-12: Eight case studies in the New York metropolitan area. Education, 125 (1), 30-40. Retrieved February 16, 2011, from EBSCO host database.
 
[23]  Perrier F. & Nsengiyumva, J.-B. Active science as a contribution to the traumarecovery process: preliminary indications with orphans from the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. International Journal of Science Education, 25, 1111-1128 (2003).
 
[24]  Pike, K.V. Natural science experiences significant to elementary school programs of outdoor education. Science Education, 46: 141-145. Article first published online: 21 AUG 2006.
 
[25]  Salmi, H. Science centres as learning laboratories: experiences of Heureka, the Finnish Science Centre. International Journal of Technology Management, 25, 460-476. 2003. http://www.heureka.fi/portal/englanti/about_heureka/research/international_journal_of_technology_management/
 
[26]  Skinner, B. F. The Behaviour of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. (1938).
 
[27]  Stavrova, O., & Urhahne, D. Modification of a School Programme in the Deutsches Museum to Enhance Students' Attitudes and Understanding. International Journal of Science Education, 32 (17), 2291-2310. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Web of Science database. 2010.
 
[28]  Sturm, H., & Bogner, F.X. Learning at workstations in two different environments: A museum and a classroom. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 36 (1/2), 14-19. Retrieved February 16, 2011, from EBSCO host database. 2010
 
[29]  Tal, R., Bamberger, Y., & Morag, O. Guided School visits to natural history museums in Israel: Teachers' roles. Science Education, 89 (6), 920-935. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Web of Science database. 2005.
 
[30]  Wolins, I. S., Jensen, N., & Ulzheimer, R. (1992). Children’s memories of museum field trips: A qualitative study. Journal of Museum Education, 17 (2), 17-27. 1992. http://www.jstor.org/pss/40478925.
 
[31]  Zoldosova, K., & Prokop, P. Education in the Field Influences Children’s Ideas and Interest toward Science. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 15 (3/4), 304-313. 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2011, from EBSCO host database.